Medieval and Early Modern Windmill Architecture and Technology

Historical aspects in the transformation of the windmill’s architectural forms, structures, and elements. Introduction The modern wind-power engineering is one of the perspective directions of using ecological clean energy. Renewable energy sources used to ensure energy supply can be considered to be an upcoming trend for civil engineering [1-10]. The article deals with the historical[…]

Medieval Innovation in Energy Production: Windmills, Waterwheels, and Automatic Fountains

Mechanical machinery in the medieval centuries used innovative sources of energy to generate motion and mechanical power. Abstract The fascinating mechanical inventions aiming at the welfare of the human kind started from ancient Egyptians and continued development through different eras. In the medieval centuries, the Islamic civilization paid wonderful attention to mechanical engineering. Banu Mosa[…]