How Woodrow Wilson’s Propaganda Machine Changed American Journalism

The censorship board. George Creel is seated at far right. Harris & Ewing/Library of Congress An executive order signed in 1917 created what’s been called ‘the nation’s first ministry of information.’ The media are still feeling its impact. By Dr. Christopher B. Daly / 04.27.2017 Professor of Journalism Boston University When the United States declared[…]

Trading between Muslims and the Sámi in Medieval Norway

Nordic Sámi (Saami) people in Sapmi (Lapland) in front of two Lavvo Tents / Photo by Granbergs Nya Aktiebolag, Wikimedia Commons Examining the interrelationship of trading, religious missions, and Crusading based mainly on Scandinavian sagas and chronicles. By Dr. Bjørn Bandlien Professor of Viking Age and Medieval History and Historiography Universitetet i Sørøst-Norge Introduction In[…]

Lost Norse of Greenland Fueled the Medieval Ivory Trade

New DNA analysis reveals that, before their mysterious disappearance, the Norse colonies of Greenland had a “near monopoly” on Europe’s walrus ivory supply. An overreliance on this trade may have contributed to Norse Greenland’s collapse when the medieval market declined. 08.08.2018 The Icelandic Sagas tell of Erik the Red: exiled for murder in the late[…]

Gandhi’s Four Paths to Peaceful Revolution

Mohandas K. Gandhi / Wikimedia Commons The Indian leader saw nonviolence as an active and powerful thing—not just the absence of war. By Madhu Suri Prakash / 07.12.2013 A (non) + Himsa (violence) = Ahimsa Gandhi lived Ahimsa as a daily practice, waging peace to stop war and violence. His lifelong “experiments” with truth proved[…]

The Judicial System in Medieval India

The Mallikarjuna temple on the left (originally called Trailokesvara temple) was built by queen Trailokyamahadevi (queen of Badami Chalukya King en:Vikramaditya II) around 740 CE. The Kasivisvanatha temple (also spelt Kashivishvanatha) is from the en:Rashtrakuta period. The location is en:Pattadakal in Karnataka, India. / Photo by Dineshkannambadi, Wikimedia Commons Examining the development of the criminal[…]

Charlemagne’s Sons and the Problems of Royal Succession

The Coronation of Charlemagne, fresco by Raphael at the Apostolic Palace, c.1516 / Wikimedia Commons The problem of Early Medieval royal succession in different circumstances. By Dr. Elke Ohnacker Professor of History Universität Konstanz Abstract The article is concerned with the problem of Early Medieval royal succession in different circumstances: the death of two of[…]

Poisons, Potions, and Drugs: Do Shakespearean Concoctions Really Work?

Looking at the botanical and zoological basis of some of these elixirs to find out whether they’d actually work.  Poisons and potions are the weapons of choice for many of Shakespeare’s most iconic characters. Used to seduce lovers, kill enemies and gain power, nothing was too noxious for Shakespeare. Photo by Dan Tentler, Flickr, Creative[…]

A History of War as Culture

Image by Ancient Origins, Wikimedia Commons Ultimately, there is only one warrior culture. Its evolution and transformation over time and place, from our beginnings to arrival in the contemporary world, is the history of warfare. By Sir John Desmond Patrick Keegan Military Historian Easter Island Easter Island is one of the loneliest places on earth,[…]

World War II: Victory in the European Theater

Prime Minister Winston Churchill, President Franklin Roosevelt, and Premier Joseph Stalin / Library of Congress Franklin Roosevelt entered World War II with an eye toward a new postwar world, one where the United States would succeed Britain as the leader of Western capitalist democracies. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction[…]

World War II: The Rise of Fascism and Nazism

Click image to enlarge The years between the First and Second World Wars were politically and economically tumultuous for the United States and especially for the world. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The years between the First and Second World Wars were politically and economically tumultuous for the United[…]

Crusader Fortifications and Siege Weaponry in the Holy Land

Krak des Chevaliers, Syria / Photo by Bernard Gagnon, Wikimedia Commons The 13th century saw a number of significant changes in the design of European and Islamic fortifications. By Dr. David Nicolle The Development of Crusader Fortifications The 13th century saw a number of significant changes in the design of European and Islamic fortifications, the[…]

The Origins and Dialects of Old English

First lines of Beowulf from the damaged Nowell Codex Old English arose from the set of varieties of West Germanic which the early settlers spoke. By Dr. Raymond Hickey Professor for General Linguistics and Varieties of English Universität Duisburg-Essen Origins The Germanic settlers, who according to the Venerable Bede arrived in England in 449, brought[…]

Multilingualism Along the Nile in Ancient Egypt

This bilingual papyrus containing magical spells and recipes dates from the early third century A.D. and is written in both Greek and Demotic. In some passages, the Greek text is also transliterated into Demotic, and vice versa. London Magical Papyrus, A.D. 200–225, Romano-Egyptian. Papyrus and ink, 9 7/16 × 33 5/8 in. The British Museum,[…]

Art and Architecture of Southeast Asia before 1200 CE

An ancient wall painting depicting the awakening of the Buddha Taṇhaṅkara in Upali Thein temple, Bagan, Myanmar / Photo by Jacklee, Wikimedia Commons The art and architecture of Southeast Asia was heavily influenced by Indian religions and artistic styles. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Sculpture in Southeast Asia Overview: Influences[…]

Native South American Art and Architecture before 1300 CE

Machu Picchu Exploring the work of South American indigenous people’s before colonization. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 08.12.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Ceramics in Early South America The ceramic objects of the Paracas, Nazca, and Moche communities of Peru vary in artistic forms and were important cultural artifacts. Like the Tiwanaku and Waki people of[…]

Medieval Monasticism as Preserver of Western Civilization

Wikimedia Commons Looking at the establishment of Western monasticism by St. Benedict of Nursia at Montecassino, Italy, in the 6th century. By Dr. Emanuel Paparella / 05.31.2008 Former Fulbright Scholar The term “Dark Ages” was once erroneously applied to the entire millennium separating late antiquity from the Italian Renaissance (500-1500 AD). Today’s scholars know better. There[…]

From Scroll to Codex: New Technology and New Opportunities

Madrid Codex (replica) in the Museum of the Americas, Madrid / Photo by Simon Burchell, Wikimedia Commons When the codex came along, it was a novel form for recording knowledge and information—a disruptive technology. By Anna O. Funk One of the most important disruptions in the history of the book was the invention of the[…]