Londinium, the Proud City: A History of Rebuilding London since Late Antiquity

The resulting texture of the metropolis has a diversity of buildings unlike any other. In 1942, at the height of the Second World War, the British government published a plan for the destruction and rebuilding of whatever of London was left standing after German bombing. The ambition compared with Albert Speer’s ‘Germania’ proposal for a new[…]

An Overview of the City of Rome from Its Origins to the Archaic Period

Legends aside, Rome’s earliest beginnings are humble and relatively ordinary. The Eternal City Rome is often described as the “eternal city,” conveying the idea that it lives (and has lived) forever, perhaps even suggesting a sort of unchanging immortality. However, even those things that are iconically eternal have a beginning. The humble beginnings of Rome[…]

The Rise of the State in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egyptian culture began long before there was an Egyptian state. Introduction Ancient Egypt is known for many things that immediately come to mind: pyramids, large temples, and the life-giving Nile River are the three most apparent, and of course, there are hundreds of other features that made the early civilization among the most important[…]

Humfrey Wanley, Library-Keeper of the Harleian Library in 1705

He continued to expand the Harleian Library with thousands of manuscripts. One of the many gems of the British Library is the Harleian collection, founded by Robert Harley, Lord High Treasurer and 1st Earl of Oxford, and his son, Edward (1689–1741), 2nd Earl of Oxford. It’s the largest intact 18th-century manuscript collection in the world,[…]

Medieval Bookbindings: From Precious Gems to Sealskin

These deluxe bindings are known as treasure bindings, because of their lavish and high-quality materials and craftsmanship. We tend to focus on the inside of the Library’s collection items, on their varied texts and remarkable illustrations. But the physical outside of a manuscript can be just as intriguing. Most medieval and early modern manuscripts no[…]

Magna Mater: The Cult of Cybele in Ancient Rome

Originally, the Cybelean cult was brought to Rome during the time of the Second Punic War (218 -201 BCE). Introduction History verifies the importance of religion not only on a society’s development but also on its survival; in this respect the Romans were no different than other ancient civilizations. During the formative years of the[…]

The Cult of Athena in Ancient Greece

In Athens, the cult of Athena Polias was the most important religious faction. Much like the Vestal Virgins of Rome, the priestesses of Greek religion enjoyed a great many perks that other Greek women did not. In exchange for the commitment to their religious and civic responsibilities, they were often paid, given property, and most[…]

History of Education in Society during the Second World War

The Second World War was one of the most cataclysmic events humanity has ever experienced, wreaking havoc and destruction across the world. So far reaching across the globe were the effects of the war that it comes as no surprise that many history courses will dedicate a large amount of the curriculum to understanding the[…]

The New Deal: FDR’s Attempt to Deliver the Chickens Hoover Promised

Roosevelt felt the needs of people took precedence over a strict budget in times of hardship. Roosevelt’s Election In 1928, Herbert Hoover ran for office at the height of American prosperity. He promised “a chicken in every pot,” and there was every indication he could deliver. A short four years later, the nation had plummeted[…]

Americans and Isolationism during the Great Depression of the 1930s

A worldwide economic depression and domestic problems bolstered the idea that the U.S. should isolate itself from events in Europe. Introduction During the 1930s, the combination of the Great Depression and the memory of tragic losses in World War I contributed to pushing American public opinion and policy toward isolationism. Isolationists advocated non-involvement in European[…]

Prehistoric Domestic Architecture in the Ohio Valley

Present knowledge indicates that the first permanent houses were constructed by the Adena people between 1000 BCE and 400 CE. By Raymond S. BabyLate Curator Emeritus of Archaeology, Ohio History ConnectionLate Professor of Anthropology, The Ohio State University Introduction “Man’s home is his castle.” Whether this old axiom applies to prehistoric man is a matter[…]

Who Were the Neanderthals?

Examining the lifestyle of these early humans, their distinctive characteristics, and what they were like. By Lisa Hendry Introduction We know more facts about Neanderthals than any other extinct humans. Many thousands of their artefacts and fossils have been found, including several nearly complete skeletons. We also know about their genetic make-up, as several Neanderthal[…]

American Women of the Colonial Period and the Nineteenth-Century City

All opportunities for education, prospect, liberation and development were closed to women. By Khelifa Arezki and Katia Mahmoudi Introduction The aim of the present paper is to shed light on women’s condition within the American society during the colonial period and the 19th century. The study will center on the gendered place that women were[…]

The Social and Legal Status of Women in the Middle Ages

The very concept of “woman” changed in a number of ways during the Middle Ages. Introduction Women in the Middle Ages occupied a number of different social roles. During the Middle Ages, a period of European history lasting from around the 5th century to the 15th century, society was patriarchal and this type of patriarchal[…]

Bologna as the Law School Model in Medieval Europe

Bologna remained a preeminent center for legal study and training for many centuries. Introduction The origins of modern universities can be traced to the 11th century, when the formal teaching of Roman law began at Bologna, Italy. The city became the center of a great revival of legal scholarship rooted in the study of the[…]

Volsinii: A Lost Ancient Etruscan Culture Consumed by Rome

In 264 BCE, Volsinii became one of the last Etruscan cities to fall in the interminable wars with Rome. Introduction Volsinii (modern Orvieto), located in central Italy, was an important Etruscan town from the 8th century BCE when it was known by the name of Velzna. Representatives of the Etruscan League met annually at the site[…]

The Hellenes: Ancient Greek Trade and Colonization of the Mediterranean

Trading stations played an important role as the furthest outposts of Ancient Greek culture. By Dr. Colette HemingwayIndependent Scholar Ancient Greek colonization began at an early date, during the so-called Geometric period of about 900 to 700 B.C., when many seminal elements of ancient Greek society were also established, such as city-states, major sanctuaries, and[…]

National Identity and Cultural Images in the Ancient World

The presentation of people, events and ideas through history has always been contentious and tied to contemporary political concerns. Since at least the third millennium B.C., economically, socially and politically marginalized people have questioned authority by mutilating public images of rulers. And those in power have destroyed monuments to reinforce their authority and erase the[…]

Teddy Roosevelt and Religion in Politics

Attacks on a candidate’s religious beliefs and affiliations have a long history in America. Teddy Roosevelt knew the danger in this. Catholics, Unbelievers, and Elections In the 1908 presidential campaign, the religious beliefs of the Republican Party nominee, William Howard Taft, came under attack. In response, another prominent Republican – the outgoing President Theodore Roosevelt[…]

A History of Apocalyptic Theology and Threat in American Politics

American leaders have often yielded to despair and lamented “the end” – as far back as the founding of the republic. ‘We Are Not a Chosen People’ During the early stages of national life, the mood was no different. Actually, it was even worse. When Thomas Jefferson realized the implications of grounding a nation upon[…]

Ancient Greek Sanctuaries as Artistic Hubs

Greek sanctuaries were perennially lively venues, each with their idiosyncratic myths and rites. Introduction For the ancient Greeks, religion was inextricably tied to everyday life. Gods and many other supernatural beings could manifest anywhere, at any time, and often in unexpected forms. Yet even within such a boundless concept of religion, there were locations deemed[…]

Ancient Greek Astronomy and Cosmology

A brief tour of some of the astronomical ideas and models from ancient Greece. Introduction As the stars move across the sky each night people of the world have looked up and wondered about their place in the universe. Throughout history civilizations have developed unique systems for ordering and understanding the heavens. Babylonian and Egyptian[…]

How the Civil War Drove Medical Innovation

The federal government was able to spur innovation to meet the needs of the crisis. Introduction The current COVID-19 pandemic, the largest public health crisis in a century, threatens the health of people across the globe. The U.S. has had the most diagnosed cases – surpassing 6 million – and more than 180,000 deaths. But[…]

Two Surgeries, 800 Years Apart: Aztec Medical Technology and Today

An archaeologist’s hip surgery prompts him to think of the experience of a Puebloan woman who survived a terrible fall centuries ago. As an archaeologist, I’ve spent a lot of time wondering what life was like in the past. I’ve also been injured a time or two, and I’ve wondered if any of my nonfatal[…]

Dogs and Their Collars in Ancient Rome

The dog was a companion, guardian, hunter, professional fighter, tracker, fellow warrior, and sometimes a sacrifice in ancient Rome. Introduction Dogs were highly valued in ancient Rome, as they were in other cultures, and the Roman dog served many of the same purposes as it did in, say, Egypt and Persia, but with a significant[…]

Dogs and Their Collars in Ancient Greece

The most basic dog collar no doubt developed on its own in Greece, but the later ones were most likely influenced by the Egyptians. Introduction Dogs in ancient Greece are regularly depicted in art, on ceramics, in literature, and other written works as loyal companions, guardians, hunters, and even as great intuitive thinkers, and all[…]

The Diplomatic Impacts of U.S. Victory in the Civil War

The victory provided a renewed strength of the U.S. government and allowed shifting resources to fight external intervention. Introduction The outcome of the Civil War resulted in a strengthening of U.S. foreign power and influence, as the definitive Union defeat of the Confederacy firmly demonstrated the strength of the United States Government and restored its[…]