Chinese School Creates ‘Grade Bank’ That Lets Students Borrow Grades to Pass Exams

In an effort to ease the intense pressure that its students face in China’s notoriously rigid exam-based education system, a school in Nanjing has created a “grade bank” that lets students “borrow” grades so that they can pass exams, and then repay them in subsequent tests. Oh man, I wish we had something like this when I[…]

Ancient DNA Reveals Genetic Continuity between Stone Age and Modern Populations in East Asia

In contrast to Western Europeans, new research finds contemporary East Asians are genetically much closer to the ancient hunter-gatherers that lived in the same region eight thousand years previously.  02.01.2017 Researchers working on ancient DNA extracted from human remains interred almost 8,000 years ago in a cave in the Russian Far East have found that[…]

‘With an Even Hand’: Brown v. Board of Education – Before, During, and After

When one undertakes to administer justice, it must be with an even hand, and by rule; what is done for one, must be done for everyone in equal degree. Thomas Jefferson to Benjamin Rush, 1803 Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 02.06.2017 Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Ruby Bridges, 1960. Gelatin silver print. New York World-Telegram and Sun[…]

Sociological Theories of Karl Marx

Photograph of Karl Marx, by John Jabez Edwin Mayall, 1875 / International Institute of Social History, Amsterdam, Netherlands Lecture by Dr. Iván Szelényi / 10.01.2009 Professor Emeritus of Sociology Yale University Theory of Alienation Marx’s Early Life Karl Marx’s house in Trier, Germany / Atlas Obscura So now we move into the nineteenth century. It’s[…]

The Market Revolution in Early America

William James Bennett, “View of South Street, from Maiden Lane, New York City,” ca. 1827 / Metropolitan Museum of New York By Dr. Jane Fiegen Green / 08.01.2016 Researcher in American History Washington University, St. Louis The American Yawp Introduction In the early years of the nineteenth century, Americans’ endless commercial ambition—what one Baltimore paper[…]

The Evolution of Gratitude

By Dr. Malini Suchak / 02.01.2017 Assistant Professor of Animal Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation Canisius College “Thank you.” Two simple words, among the most repeated on a daily basis. When I travel to a foreign country, it is one of the first phrases I learn, just after “hello.” When children start making verbal requests, their[…]

Krakatoa Sunsets: Impact on a Poet Thousands of Miles Away from the 1883 Eruption

Clouds pouring from the volcano on Krakatoa (aka Krakatau or Rakata) in south western Indonesia during the early stages of the eruption which eventually destroyed most of the island. Royal Society Report on Krakatoa Eruption – pub. 1888 Lithograph – Parker & Coward (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images) When a volcano erupted on a small[…]

History of the Soviet Union, 1947-1954: Cold War to Xenophobia

Children in the Russian Famine of 1946-1947 / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Lewis Siegelbaum / 09.24.2015 Professor of Russian and European History Michigan State University Cars for Comrades   Left: New Zaporozhets, photo by Nikolay Rakhmanov (1960) / Wikimedia Commons Right: Selling the Volga Abroad / Wikimedia Commons Cars and communism did not get along[…]

Yiddish and Judeo-Spanish, a European Heritage

Judeo-Spanish: A Dying Language By Dr. Haïm Vidal Séphiha / 1997 Professor Emeritus of Linguistics Université Paris Sorbonne Nouvelle European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages Institut Sépharade Européen Origins On 31 March 1492, the Spain of three religions (Christianity, Islam and Judaism) followed the example of other European nations. After the fall of Grenada, which[…]