Four Presidential Elections with Contested Results: 1876, 1888, 1960, and 2000

Senator John F. Kennedy speaks to supporters at Chicago Stadium four days before the 1960 election. AP Photo There is a history of candidates crying foul after suspicious results. By Dr. Robert Speel / 11.01.2016 Associate Professor of Political Science The University of Pennsylvania 1876: A compromise that came at a price By 1876 –[…]

The 1824 Election and the “Corrupt Bargain”

The 1824 presidential election marked the final collapse of the Republican-Federalist political framework. For the first time no candidate ran as a Federalist, while five significant candidates competed as Democratic-Republicans. Clearly, no party system functioned in 1824. The official candidate of the Democratic-Republicans to replace Monroe was William H. Crawford, the secretary of the treasury.[…]

Crisis and Recovery in the Late Medieval Era, 1300-1450

1493 woodcut of Basle, from the Nuremberg Chronicle / Wikimedia Commons Population growth had exceeded the limits of the agricultural economy by 1300 and became unsustainable. Lecture by Dr. Michael C. Hickey Professor of History Bloomsburg University of Pennsylvania Crisis (1300-1400) Climate Change, Soil Exhaustion, and Agricultural Decline Three Field System with Ridge and furrow-Fields[…]

The Economic Impact of the Black Death

The Black Death was the largest demographic disaster in European history. By Dr. David Routt / 07.20.2008 University of Richmond Overview The Black Death was the largest demographic disaster in European history. From its arrival in Italy in late 1347 through its clockwise movement across the continent to its petering out in the Russian hinterlands[…]

Filial Piety and Confucian Law in Ancient and Medieval China

Scene from the Song Dynasty Illustrations of the Classic of Filial Piety, depicting a son kneeling before his parents. / National Palace Museum, Wikimedia Commons Filial piety is a typical feature of Chinese civilization. By Dr. Miao Chungang China University of Political Science and Law Abstract Filial piety is a typical feature of Chinese civilization.[…]

Hammurabi’s Babylon

The top of the Law Code Stele of King Hammurabi / Creative Commons Hammurabi ruled through provincial governors but also allowed cities to make local decisions and collect taxes by councils of elders. By Dr. Sanderson Beck Author and Historian As indicated by Rim-Sin’s rule from Larsa in the south and the extensive territory controlled[…]