Was Sputnik Really the Beginning of the Space Age?

America had completed a series of successful launches into space and achieved many firsts well before Sputnik. Although you will often hear the notion that the space age began in 1957 with the launching of the Soviet-made artificial satellite known as Sputnik, the actual historical record is not so simple. While it is certainly correct[…]

Russian Science Prior to the Russian Revolution

A discussion of the the scientific context prior to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Abstract This paper is an attempt to present and discuss the scientific context prior to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917. Some general aspects of the scientific milieus of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries are described,[…]

Anti-Semitic Propaganda and the Christian Church in Hitler’s Germany: A Case of Schrödinger’s Cat

The effectiveness of the propaganda machinery altered perception, thus reality. Abstract In his epic Mein Kampf, Adolf Hitler made a point of disparaging the intelligentsia. He asserted that propaganda was the most effective tool to use in political campaigns since especially the popular masses generally possessed limited astuteness and were generally devoid of intellect. This[…]

“The Lying Pen of the Scribes”: A Nineteenth-Century Dead Sea Scroll

Historical research is important not simply for its own sake, but for what we can learn from it and apply to the future. The original version of Deuteronomy. That’s how the newly-discovered text was billed in August 1883. Several fragments of a 2,800-year-old scroll had made their way into the hands of Moses Shapira, an[…]

The Fourth Skull: A Tale of Authenticity and Fraud

This is a story of four different skulls that reached three of the world’s largest museums under less than transparent circumstances. By Dr. Jane MacLaren Walsh and Dr. David HuntWalsh: Anthropologist Emeritus, Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural HistoryHunt: Professional Lecturer in Anthropology, George Washington University Introduction This is a story of four different skulls that[…]

A History of Substance in Philosophy

For anything to exist, it must serve as a missing connection to reality. By Dr. Bassey Samuel Akpan and Dr. Charles Clement OdohoediAkpan: Professor of Philosophy, University of CalabarOdohoedi: Professor of Philosophy, University of Ibadan Abstract A lot of words investigated by philosophers get their inception for conventional or extra-philosophical dialect. Yet the idea of[…]