‘Dinnae Meddle!’: Scotland and the Historiography of Homosexual Law Reform

Scotland has its own independent legal system, education system and religious institutions, and gay men were criminalized there long after England ended their laws. A curious, or perhaps irksome, aspect of ‘British’ approaches to the history of sexuality is that they tend to neglect the variation of experience within the United Kingdom. I’ve lost count[…]

Three Wise Men in a Bed: Bedsharing and Sexuality in Medieval Europe

One of the biggest challenges facing medieval historians is interpreting the actions of individuals at a remove of several centuries. One of the biggest challenges facing medieval historians, and perhaps especially historians of medieval sexuality, is interpreting the actions of individuals at a remove of several centuries. Take, for example, the case of King Richard[…]

Evangelical Religion and Evangelical Democracy in the 19th Century

The problem with mixing religion and politics was that political issues became moral issues and, therefore, more difficult to deal with in the political process. Evangelical religion and evangelical democracy reinforced each other in nineteenth-century America. The spread of evangelical Christianity and democracy across a continent justified the wars against Native Americans and Mexico, and[…]

Church, State, and Competing Ideologies Regarding the Indian Removal Act of 1830

Controversies surrounding the 1830 Indian Removal Act reflected the Early Republic’s problem of church and state. “I most sincerely desire that the historian, who shall write a hundred years hence, may be enabled to say… Georgia has not repeatedly, within a few years past, threatened to take the lands of Indians by force,” wrote Jeremiah[…]

Exploring the Religion of Ancient Carthage

Most Carthaginian gods were inherited from the Phoenicians, but these were adapted, and their names and functions evolved over time. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Carthage was founded by the Phoenician city of Tyre in the 9th century BCE, and along with many other cultural practices, the city adopted aspects of the religion of its founding fathers. Polytheistic in nature, such important Phoenician[…]

Ancient Phoenician Religion

The Phoenician Religion, as in many other ancient cultures, was an inseparable part of everyday life. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction The Phoenician Religion, as in many other ancient cultures, was an inseparable part of everyday life. Gods such as Baal, Astarte, and Melqart had temples built in their name, offerings and sacrifices were regularly made to them, royalty[…]