A Stuttered Hello to ARPANET: How the Internet Was Born

On October 29, 1969, an experiment at UCLA sparked a communication revolution, the implications of which are still unfolding nearly five decades later. The Spark Introduction In the late hours of October 29, 1969, an apparently insignificant experiment carried out in a lab in the University of California in Los Angeles (UCLA) would spark a[…]

The Domesday Book: Counting a Person’s Worth in William the Conqueror’s England

The record is unique in European history and, packed full of statistics and snippets which reveal details of medieval life in England. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Domesday Book was a comprehensive survey and record of all the landowners, property, tenants and serfs of medieval Norman England which was compiled in 1086-7 CE under the orders[…]

Medieval Heraldry: Personal Identity and Family Lineage

Heraldry began on the mid-12th century CE battlefield as an easy means to identify medieval royalty and princes. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Heraldry, that is the use of inherited coats of arms and other symbols to show personal identity and family lineage, began on the mid-12th century CE battlefield as an easy means to identify[…]

The History and Culture of Bahrain

Bahrain has a unique, indigenous middle class, which contributes to the tendency of that nation being more liberal than its neighbors. Introduction Bahrain, officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (Arabic: مملكة البحرين Mamlakat al-Baḥrayn), is an island country in the Persian Gulf and is the smallest Arab nation. Bahrain was the first location in the region in which oil reserves were discovered. As a[…]

Dilmun: Ancient Polity of Modern Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia

The great commercial and trading connections between Mesopotamia and Dilmun were strong and profound. Introduction Dilmun, or Telmun,[2] (Arabic: دلمون) was an ancient Semitic-speaking polity in Arabia mentioned from the 3rd millennium BC onwards.[3][4] Based on textual evidence, it was located in the Persian Gulf, on a trade route between Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization, close to the[…]