Transnational Debts: The Cultural Memory of Navajo Code Talkers in World War II

Their experiences and memories—in oral histories, interviews, as well as in fiction and film—challenge the narrative of a glorious nation in unison. Even 70 years after it ended, World War II continues to endure in the global imagination. In the United States, images of the “Good War” prevail, and memories of the soldiers have been[…]

How the Forced Removal of the Southeast’s Indians Turned Native Lands into Slave Plantations

“Alabama Fever” triggered a takeover by cotton planters of America’s oldest indigenous region. The Old South wasn’t really that old. Plantations appeared in many areas of the Deep South only a few decades before the Civil War. Before that, the South was Indian country. The South’s long and rich Indigenous history is unknown to many[…]

Benjamin Franklin Was One-Fifth Revolutionary, Four-Fifths London Intellectual

The enterprising Philadelphian was a long-time Royalist and late-blooming rebel who fused the American project with English ideals. Two hundred and fifty years ago, in February 1766, Benjamin Franklin, the most famous American in London, addressed the British House of Commons. His aim, which he achieved triumphantly, was to persuade Parliament to repeal the Stamp[…]

George Mason: Lost Founder

George Mason’s intellectual potency had a decisive role in shaping and producing our founding documents. America was woven together by three revered pieces of political paper: The Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. George Mason’s intellectual potency had a decisive role in shaping and producing all three documents, and leaves one[…]

A Brief History of the Persian Gulf

During the years 550 to 330 B.C.E., the name “Pars Sea” was widely written in the compiled texts when referring to the whole part of the Persian Gulf. Introduction The Persian Gulf is located in Southwest Asia. It is an extension of the Indian Ocean located between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Historically and commonly known as the Persian Gulf, this[…]

Nineveh, Antioch-on-the-Orontes, and Lepcis Magna: Three Ancient Cities to Rival London, Paris, and New York

It can be difficult to imagine that the antiquities in museums were once a part of vibrant and cosmopolitan cities. Introduction London, Paris and New York are global cities: modern hubs for travel, technology and trade, their names and images echo around the globe, capturing our imaginations with their distinctive histories, famous residents and iconic[…]