Two defining technologies of nineteenth-century America—railroads and photography—developed largely in parallel and brought about drastic changes in how people understood time and space. Originally published by the United States Library of Congress to the public domain.
Exploring Britain’s railways from 1812 to 2007. 1812: The First Effective Locomotive-Powered Railway The coal-carrying Middleton Railway, near Leeds, introduced rack-and-pinion locomotives to haul its trains in 1812. Formerly, coal had been transported from the Middleton pits by wagon way, using horse-drawn wagons. The locomotive’s cylinders drove the pinions through right-angled cranks, so that the[…]
A GPS for sixteenth-century travelers. By Mary Alexandra Agner Like many other familiar objects, the road map has been transformed by digital technology. From unfoldable glove-compartment staple to robotically voiced GPS system, maps have become more portable, easier to hold, and just plain different. Whether or not we pause to reflect on it, these gadgets[…]
Examining how topographical views were often the result of artists touring in Britain and beyond. The lawyer Sir William Burrell, planning a history of Sussex which he never completed, commissioned over the period 1780 to 1791 a series of illustrative drawings from James Lambert, a local watercolourist, and from Samuel Hieronymus Grimm, an immigrant from Switzerland.[…]
Alexander von Humboldt was one of the most influential scientists of the 19th century. His discoveries have profoundly impacted modern science and medicine. Originally published by ESRI, republished with embed permission for educational, non-commercial purposes.
Copernicus caused a revolution in contemporary knowledge by stating that science, not religion, explains how the universe works. Originally published by ESRI, republished with embed permission for educational, non-commercial purposes.