The History of the Emergence of Ancient Universities

Ever wondered about the origin of universities? If so, this article is going to be of interest you. The term university according to Wikipedia refers to an institution of higher learning or tertiary education and research. Every high school kid desires to go to university, although not all of them make it. Many Universities have[…]

The Civil War and the Black West

Assisted by Native Americans, they moved – and fought. Introduction In 1861, as Confederate armies prepared to crush the Union, President Lincoln commanded only 13,000 men and officers. At this moment ragged immigrant invaders seeking asylum reached the southern border of Kansas. Surrounded in Oklahoma on three sides by slaveholding states, they found themselves defenseless when[…]

Listening to the Past: An African-American Lullaby

Both during slavery and after, the power structures of American society confined many black women to the role of caretakers of white families. My research tries to capture the sounds of the past before the advent of recorded music. I’m curious about ideas that were spoken and sung and shouted and strummed, focusing particularly on[…]

Martial Arts in Medieval Japan

Several of the martial arts which became popular in medieval Japan were introduced from China. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction There were 18 martial arts (bugei or bujutsu) in medieval Japan, and these included use of weapons, unarmed self-defence techniques, swimming, and equestrian skills. Initially designed to hone the skills of warriors for greater success on[…]

Feudalism in Medieval Japan

Feudalism (hoken seido) began to be widespread in Japan from the beginning of the Kamakura Period (1185-1333 CE). By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Feudalism in medieval Japan (1185-1603 CE) describes the relationship between lords and vassals where land ownership and its use was exchanged for military service and loyalty. Although present earlier to some degree, the feudal system in Japan was[…]