On Weather and History

Weather often significantly affects history. Fox’s Jesse Waters dismissedclimate change in a not-so-nuanced manner: “It gets hot. It gets cold.” Yet weather matters, and it matters even to historians. I offer an illustration. I have for many years been perplexed by the somberness of Jefferson’s thinking beginning with the spring of 1816 and continuing throughout[…]

How Photographs of Poverty in the Americas Ignited an International Battle over Propaganda

Introduction In late July 1961, O Cruzeiro magazine—Brazil’s answer to the American magazine Life—sent photographer Henri Ballot to document poverty in New York City. Ballot’s assignment had been issued in direct response to “Freedom’s Fearful Foe: Poverty,” a photo-essay Life had published the month before featuring reporting, diary entries, and photographs by Gordon Parks about the[…]

The Effects of the Industrial Revolution on the Family, Classes, Occupations, and Nationalities

Different classes of people, the occupations they held, and what nationality they were played a role in how their families were impacted during this time. Introduction Over the course of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, we different aspects of how people were affected during this time. Some examples of how families were affected include occupation[…]

Ancient Greek Scroll’s Hidden Contents Revealed through Infrared Imaging

The scroll was discovered and painstakingly unrolled in 1795. More than 200 years ago, scholars glued the remains of an ancient papyrus scroll onto cardboard to preserve it. But the scroll, a history of Plato’s Academy, also had writing on the back. Now scholars have deployed imaging technology to read what’s been concealed. This scroll[…]

The Sumerians of Ancient Mesopotamia

The Sumerians were responsible for many important innovations, inventions, and concepts taken for granted in the present day. Introduction The Sumerians were the people of southern Mesopotamia whose civilization flourished between c. 4100-1750 BCE. Their name comes from the region which is frequently – and incorrectly – referred to as a “country”. Sumer was never[…]