The Standard of Living in Europe during the Industrial Revolution

During the Industrial Revolution, living conditions for new industrial workers were much different than they had been before. Introduction In Britain during the Industrial Revolution, large changes were beginning to take place regarding the standard of living for the people living at this time. No matter which class a person was in, from poorer working class[…]

Women’s Roles in the Industrial Revolution

Throughout the Industrial Revolution, gender was a major influence on worker salary. Experience of Women at the Outset of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution impacted different social classes of women in numerous ways.  Throughout this time period, the working class citizens were most significantly impacted.  Many women who did not belong to wealthy families would often[…]

Ukraine and Russia: Legacies of the Imperial Past and Competing Memories

The significance of the imperial heritage for the Russian–Ukrainian relationship. Abstract The legacy of the tsarist Empire and the Soviet Union is one of the crucial factors for an understanding and an explanation of current affairs in the post-Soviet space. This is especially true for Ukraine and for Russian–Ukrainian relations. Russia regards Ukraine as a[…]

Bayan I: Early Medieval King of the Avars (Modern Ukraine, Russia, and Kazakhstan)

Bayan I first enters history with the migration of the Avars to the region of the Pontic Grass Steppe. Introduction Bayan I (reigned 562/565-602 CE) was a king of the Avars, a confederation of heterogeneous people who migrated from the region of Mongolia, north of China, in 552 CE and came in contact with the[…]

Krak Des Chevaliers: A Crusader Castle in Medieval Syria

Considered virtually impregnable, it was the largest Crusader castle in the Middle East. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Krak des Chevaliers (also spelt Cracs des Chevaliers, and known in Arabic as Hisn al-Akrad) is a castle in Syria originally built for the Emir of Aleppo in 1031 CE but acquired and extensively rebuilt by the Knights[…]

The Seleucid Empire of Hellenistic Mesopotamia, 312-63 BCE

Seleucus was arguably the most successful of Alexander’s successors with the creation of a multi-national empire. Introduction The Seleucid Empire (312-63 BCE) was the vast political entity established by Seleucus I Nicator (“Victor” or “Unconquered”, l. c. 358-281 BCE, r. 305-281 BCE), one of the generals of Alexander the Great, after Alexander’s death in 323[…]