A History of Political Parties in the United States

The winning supporters of ratification of the Constitution were called Federalists and the opponents were called Anti-Federalists. The First Political Parties: Federalists and Anti-Federalists Overview The winning supporters of ratification of the Constitution were called Federalists, the opponents were called Anti-Federalists. The Federalist Era was a period in American history from roughly 1789-1801 when the[…]

The First Party System in the Early American Republic

By 1796 politics in every state was nearly monopolized by two parties, with party newspapers and caucuses becoming especially effective tools to mobilize voters. Introduction The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly[…]

Medical Anesthesia and Surgery in Ancient Rome

Examining the type of anesthesia and techniques employed to prepare patients for invasive surgery in ancient Rome. Abstract During the Roman Imperial period countless legionnaires received wounds and injuries requiring surgery. The principles of immediacy and expectancy emphasized that the timing of care after trauma was as important as the quality of care. The use[…]

Medicine in Ancient Rome

Treatments became more well known, and surgery became more sophisticated. By Mark CartwrightHistorian Introduction Roman medicine was greatly influenced by earlier Greek medical practice and literature but would also make its own unique contribution to the history of medicine through the work of such famous experts as Galen and Celsus. Whilst there were professional doctors[…]

How Climate Change and Diseased Helped the Fall of Rome

Understanding history can deepen our sense of what it means to be human and how fragile our societies are. At some time or another, every historian of Rome has been asked to say where we are, today, on Rome’s cycle of decline. Historians might squirm at such attempts to use the past but, even if[…]

Climate Change and the Rise and Demise of the Ancient Neo-Assyrian Empire

What caused the rise and then collapse 2,600 years ago of this vast empire centered on Mesopotamia? Introduction Ancient Mesopotamia, the fabled land between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, was the command and control center of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. This ancient superpower was the largest empire of its time, lasting from 912 BC to[…]

4 Reasons to Treat Mental Illness Like We Do Physical Illness

In the United States, 46.4 percent of adults will experience a mental illness at some point during their life. Less than half of the people included in this percentage will seek out the help they need. Why are people so opposed to getting help for their mental illness? When mental health is important, why does it take a[…]