An Overview of Medieval Universities

Introduction A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher education. The first Western European institutions generally considered universities were established in the Kingdom of Italy (then part of the Holy Roman Empire), the Kingdom of England, the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Spain, and the Kingdom[…]

Charlemagne’s Early Medieval Educational Reforms and Carolingian Schools

Under Charlemagne’s rule, the work of educational reform began to have a measure of success. Introduction Carolingian schools comprised a small number of educational institutions which had a major share in the Carolingian renaissance, specifically cathedral schools and monastic schools. Under the Merovingian Kings of the Frankish kingdoms there was established at the court a[…]

‘Walking Corpses’: Life as a Leper in Medieval Eurasia

Medieval society was compelled to adapt to the presence of the chronically ill. Conventional narratives tell us that medieval lepers were pariahs who lived out their days as rejected invalids, rotting away in decrepit asylums, quarantined from society. Some of this is true. The disease became so common in Europe, however, that medieval society was[…]

Medicine and Society in the Medieval Hospital

In this period, hospitals preserved both the symbolic and material link to the Church and religion, based on the idea that the body and the soul were closely connected and mutually influenced. Hospitals today are places where medical treatment is provided, but also places where major life events, such as birth and death, occur. Yet,[…]

Truths Wrapped in Fiction: Ancient Mesopotamian Naru Literature

The myth, in time, became the reality. Introduction Originality in literary compositions in the ancient world did not carry the same weight and value as it does in the present day. In recent centuries, authors have been applauded for the creation of original works, whether fiction or non-fiction, and have been derided for plagiarism or[…]

Nebuchadnezzar: Warrior King, Rebuilder of Cities, and Musical Muse

Thousands of years after his rule, Nebuchadnezzar’s name lives on in his buildings and in ancient literature. Introduction Kanye West’s first operatic work, Nebuchadnezzar, has just premiered at the Hollywood Bowl in Los Angeles. Set in the 6th century BCE, the opera is based on the biblical story of Nebuchadnezzar II, a powerful ruler and[…]

4 Games That Require Supreme Mental Alertness

Studies show that board games and even video games are good for your brain health.  When people play games, it promotes the growth of new neurons in your brain. The new brain cells enhance your mental skills, including your attention span, memory, and coordination.  Want to really challenge your body and mind? These games require the[…]