Classical Economics in the Early Modern World

Economic theory today still rests in many areas upon the foundations laid by classical economists. Introduction Classical economics is widely regarded as the first modern school of economic thought. The term “classical” refers to work done by a group of economists in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Its major developers include Adam Smith, David Ricardo,[…]

The Elizabethan Age and the English Renaissance

The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly because of the contrasts with the periods before and after. Introduction The Elizabethan Age is the time period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. It was an age considered to be the height[…]

The Bayeux Tapestry: Propaganda in 1066 for William the Conqueror

The Tapestry is valued both as a work of art and as a source concerning the history of the Norman Conquest. Introduction The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth, done in painstaking detail, which depicts the events leading up to[…]

Byzantine Art as Propaganda: Justinian and Theodora at Ravenna

Justifications for the propagandizing elements in these mosaics are not difficult. Power on earth was once – and sometimes even now – perceived as a result of power in heaven. The great double mosaic of Justinian and Theodora at San Vitale in Ravenna is a forceful exercise in demonstrating power through art as propaganda, fusing[…]

Ancient Rome at Its Greatest Strength and Reach under Emperor Trajan

Trajan’s legacy proved to be one of the most enduring in the history of the Roman Empire. Introduction Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, commonly known as Trajan (September 18, 53 – August 9, 117) was Roman Emperor who reigned from 98, until his death in 117. He was the second of the Five Good Emperors of[…]