American Indian Culture of the West

Many different groups of American Indians with distinct cultures inhabited the western region of North America. Geographic and Temporal Setting: The Diverse West The West of United States, extending from the top corner of Washington, through California and into parts of Nevada, Utah, Colorado, and Idaho, was home to a diverse array of Native American[…]

A Brief History of the Indigenous Peoples of the Americas

Some indigenous peoples of the Americas supported agriculturally advanced societies for thousands of years. Introduction The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Americas, their descendants, and many ethnic groups who identify with those peoples. They are often also referred to as “Native Americans” or “American Indians,” although such terms are[…]

Avicenna and His Medical Influence in Medieval Europe

Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine was used for several centuries in medieval Europe and the Arab world as a major medical textbook. Introduction Ibn Sina (980-1037 C.E.), often referred to by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian physician, philosopher, and scientist. He was one of the major Islamic philosophers and his philosophical writings had a[…]

Paracelsus: Aggressive and Outspoken Medieval Medical Practitioner

His aggressive manner of teaching and his outspoken criticism of traditional medical theory made him unwelcome in medieval universities. Introduction Paracelsus (November 11 or December 17, 1493 – 24 September, 1541) was a Swiss alchemist, physician, astrologer, and philosopher. Born Theophrastus Philippus Aureolus Bombastus von Hohenheim, he took the name Paracelsus later in life, meaning[…]

Gaius Julius Caesar: The First Emperor before the First Emperor in Ancient Rome

Caesar fought in a civil war that left him undisputed master of the Roman world. Introduction Gaius Julius Caesar (July 13, 100 B.C.E. – March 15, 44 B.C.E.) was a Roman military and political leader whose role in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire changed the course of Western civilization. His[…]

Pompey the Great: Vying for Power in the Last Years of the Roman Republic

Pompey fought on the side of the Optimates, the conservative faction in the Roman Senate, until he was defeated by Caesar. Introduction Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, commonly known as Pompey /’pɑmpi/, Pompey the Great or Pompey the Triumvir (September 29, 106 B.C.E.–September 28, 48 B.C.E.), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman[…]

The Changing Face of Digital and Physical Shopping

The Internet has dramatically changed the ways that people browse, shop for, and purchase their goods. The landscape has evolved; physical storefronts now compete, interact with, and employ digital storefronts and software. This gives shoppers far more options than ever before. However, in light of these changes, the boundaries between traditional and online stores have[…]