An Historical Overview of Modern Counterculture

A number of freedoms have been endorsed within countercultural communities. Introduction Counterculture is a term used to describe a group whose values and norms of behavior run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day, the cultural equivalent of political opposition. Although distinct countercultural undercurrents exist in all societies, here the term “counterculture”[…]

The Myth of Thomas Jefferson’s Inscrutability

Jeffersonian scholarship is a Hydra’s head, mostly because we make it so. Political discrepancies between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton centered on contradictory interpretations of the U.S. Constitution. Hamilton favored a slack interpretation of the Constitution—viz., what the Constitution did not strictly prohibit it sanctioned. One large issue for Hamilton was the Bank of the[…]

Indigenous Medicine: A Fusion of Ritual and Remedy

Aborigines were hunter gatherers – not cultivators – so there was little intentional interference with natural selection of native plants. Introduction In traditional Indigenous Australian society, healers used plants in tandem with precise ritual. Thousands of years later, we’re beginning to understand the science underlying these medicines. A variety of plant species were used in[…]

Medicine Wheel: ‘Sacred Hoops’ of Indigenous Americans

The hoop is symbolic of “the never-ending circle of life.” Introduction Medicine wheels, or sacred hoops, are stone structures built by certain Indigenous peoples of the Americas apparently for astronomical, ritual, healing, and teaching purposes. They were constructed by laying stones in a particular pattern on the ground. Most medicine wheels resemble a wagon wheel,[…]

The Ancient Athenian Treasury at Delphi

The Athenian treasury was the first Panhellenic sanctuary that was dedicated by Athenians. Introduction The Athenian Treasury at Delphi was constructed by the Athenians to house dedications and votive offerings made by their city and citizens to the sanctuary of Apollo. The entire treasury including its sculptural decoration is built of Parian marble. The date[…]

An Historical Overview of Ancient Economic Thought

Discussions of economics have existed since ancient times but it was not a separate discipline until the nineteenth century. Introduction In the history of economic thought, early economic thought refers to ideas from before and during the Middle Ages. The earliest discussions of economics date back to ancient times, such as Chanakya’s Arthashastra or Xenophon’s[…]