History and Institutions of the Holy Roman Empire in Medieval Europe

The Empire, for much of its history, can be seen as the Christian equivalent of the Muslim caliphate. Introduction The Holy Roman Empire was a mainly Germanic conglomeration of lands in Central Europe during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. It was also known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation[…]

A History of the Frankish Empire of Early Medieval Europe

The first time that Francia is named is in the Panegyrici Latini in the early third century. Introduction Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (Latin: imperium Francorum), was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks from the third to the tenth century. The Frankish realm was ruled as one polity subdivided[…]

A History of the Ancient Temple of Jerusalem

Sacrifices of various types were central to the Temple’s function. Introduction Also known as Solomon’s Temple, the Temple of Jerusalem was the national center of Israelite religious life, especially for the offering of sacrifices, but also as a cultural and intellectual center. It was located on Jerusalem’s Temple Mount. Its architecture and rich furnishings are[…]

Philistia: A History of Palestine since the Stone Age

Human remains, the “Palestine Man”, found south of Lake Tiberias in the Zuttiyeh Cave, date back as early as 600,000 BCE. Introduction Palestine is one of several names for the geographic region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River and various adjoining lands. Different geographic definitions of Palestine have been used over the millennia,[…]

Ten Ancient Stories and the Geological Events That May Have Inspired Them

If you dig deep enough, you can find some truth to legends and creation stories. Introduction Myths have fed the imaginations and souls of humans for thousands of years. The vast majority of these tales are just stories people have handed down through the ages. But a few have roots in real geological events of[…]

Ancient Mesopotamian Cosmology and Mythology

Mesopotamian myths appear to have had a more practical purpose and were used to cure and prevent various physical ailments. Introduction In order to understand the place of myth in Mesopotamian culture, it is first necessary to give a general introduction to Mesopotamian religion. First, there is no single Mesopotamian ‘religion.’ The region known by[…]