Maggie Lena Walker: Pennies and Nickels Add Up to Success

Maggie Lena Walker was one of the most important Black businesswomen in the nation, and today too few people have heard of her. Maggie Lena Walker was the first Black woman in the nation to organize and run a bank. And she did it in the segregated South in the former capital of the Confederacy,[…]

Mary Edwards Walker: 18th-Century Physician and Suffragist

Mary Edwards Walker defied convention in just about everything she did. Mary Edwards Walker was uncompromising in her beliefs about herself and the world she lived in. She declined to conform to social expectations, which sometimes cost her greatly; until her dying day Walker refused to be anyone but herself, a trait even some of[…]

Tales from a Medieval Plague Pit

We can now catch tiny pieces of DNA from ancient diseases and look for clues about how their genes have changed over time. Introduction The Black Death is without a doubt one of the most famous infectious diseases in history. Sweeping across Asia and Europe during the mid-fourteenth century, it reduced European populations by as[…]

Medicine in Ancient Greece and Rome

The ‘Hippocratic’ four humours, Roman hygiene, the first hospitals, and home remedies. The Greeks combined dietetics, medicines, surgery and regulating the whole life-style in their treatment of ailments. Diet, or regimen – in the broad sense of the whole lifestyle – was the first resort. Individuals were advised on how to live in order to[…]

The Census in Ancient Rome, 225 to 28 BCE

Examining the census statistics left by official records. It has been customary for historians to accept, though with a parenthetical warning, Beloch’s[1] interpretation’ of the Roman census statistics. While we must continue to consider his work fundamental wherever he succeeded in explaining the basic sources, it is my belief that he frequently abandoned those sources[…]

An Historical Overview of the Census in the Ancient and Medieval World

One of the earliest documented censuses was taken in 500-499 B.C.E. by the Persian Empire’s military for land grants and taxation purposes. Introduction A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). The term is mostly used in connection with national ‘population and housing censuses’[…]