John C. Calhoun and American Disunion

Whether we like it or not, John C. Calhoun is still very much with us today. Originally published by Newberry Digital Collections for the Classroom, 04.24.2018, Newberry Library, republished with permission for educational, non-commercial purposes. Introduction Once described by historian David Potter as “the most majestic champion of error since Milton’s Satan,” John C. Calhoun[…]

“Join or Die”: Facts about Benjamin Franklin’s Famous Revolutionary Image

Why aren’t Delaware and Georgia included and why did he combine four northeastern colonies into one? The “Join, or Die” snake, a cartoon image printed in numerous newspapers as the conflict between England and France over the Ohio Valley was expanding into war—”the first global war fought on every continent,” as Thomas Bender recently has[…]

Spanish Conquistadors and the Fall of Aztec Tenochtitlan

The Spanish saw nothing of value in the indigenous culture and set out to systematically destroy everything that had no monetary value. Introduction The Fall of Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec Empire, came about through the manipulation of local factions and divisions by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés. Though numerous battles were fought between the[…]

Tenochca: A History of Aztec Civilization

Aztec civilization sustained millions of people and developed over thousands of years isolated from European and Asian cultures. Introduction The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. They were a civilization with a rich cultural heritage whose capital, Tenochtitlan, rivaled the greatest cities of Europe in size[…]

Early Medieval Chinese Presence in the Nubian and Abyssinian Kingdoms

Examining the visit of Du Huan to Molin-guo and Laobosa. Abstract This article focuses on the first Chinese whose presence in Africa is clearly documented. Due to the geographical curiosity of the T’ang dynasty, extracts of an 8th century travel report of a Chinese military officer, Du Huan, were documented and preserved. He visited Arabian[…]

An Overview of the Economy of Ancient China

Trade routes spanned China in early Shang dynasty times, but it was from mid-Zhou times that commerce expanded markedly. Agriculture The great majority of the people lived in farming villages, carrying out a host of tasks to grow their crops – sowing, ploughing, weeding, harvesting, storing  – and keep themselves fed, clothed and housed –[…]