An Overview of the Gilded Age in the Late Nineteenth Century

The late 19th century saw the creation of a modern industrial economy during the rise of robber barons and corporate buccaneers. Introduction Mark Twain called the late 19th century the “Gilded Age.” By this, he meant that the period was glittering on the surface but corrupt underneath. In the popular view, the late 19th century[…]

Roundheads and Cavaliers: The English Civil Wars, 1642-1651

These wars were between supporters of the king’s right to absolute authority, and supporters of the rights of Parliament. Introduction The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians (often called the Roundheads) and Royalists (or the cavaliers) from 1642 until 1651.[…]

Royals Fight for Jurisdiction: The Medieval ‘Hundred’ Years’ War, 1337-1453

It is often viewed as one of the most significant conflicts in the history of medieval warfare. Introduction The Hundred Years’ War is the name modern historians have given to what was a series of related conflicts, fought over a 116-year period, between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France, and later Burgundy;[…]

Roger Bacon and His Medieval Search for Scientific Truth

Roger Bacon believed people should test their beliefs rather than accepting what they’re told. Introduction It seems that science has been taking a beating lately. From decades of denial by the tobacco industry that smoking causes cancer to more recent attempts to use the COVID-19 pandemic to score political points, a presumption seems to have[…]