The Roosevelt Bond: Distant Cousins Franklin and Theodore

Politics and war brought Teddy Roosevelt and Franklin Delano Roosevelt ever closer. Introduction On May 26, 1914, Teddy Roosevelt ventured to Washington, D.C., to deliver a lecture at the National Geographic Society. Only a week before, Roosevelt had appeared in New York a jaundiced, frail version of his legendary robust self, after a seven-month trip[…]

Bartram’s Garden and a Compromise of the Founders in 1787

During the contentious deliberations in 1787, an excursion into the country provided a welcome diversion for a handful of delegates. By Diane M. Bitting Their destination on that July morning: the nearby garden of renowned Quaker botanist John Bartram. According to an account in the 2011 book Founding Gardenersby Andrea Wulf, that visit may have led[…]

The Migration Period in Ancient Europe, 300-568 CE

The migrants comprised war bands or tribes of 10,000 to 20,000 people during and after the decline of the Western Roman Empire. Introduction The Migration Period was a period that lasted from AD 375 (possibly as early as 300) to 568, during which there were widespread invasions of peoples within or into Europe, during and after[…]

Publius Quinctilius Varus and Rome’s Germanic Halt at Teutoburg Forest

The loss caused a great shock in Rome and effectively stopped Roman expansion beyond the Rhine River. Introduction Publius Quinctilius Varus (c. 46 BCE – 9 CE) was a Roman politician and general under the rule of Emperor Augustus. He is most remembered for having lost three Roman legions when ambushed by Germanic tribes in[…]

Music in Ancient, Medieval, and Modern China

The legendary founder of music in Chinese mythology was Ling Lun, who made bamboo pipes tuned to the sounds of birds. Introduction The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 B.C.E. – 256[…]

Astronomy in China since the Ancient World

China continues to be active in astronomy, with many observatories and its own space program. Introduction Astronomy in China has a very long history. Oracle bones from the Shang Dynasty (second millennium B.C.E.) record eclipses and novae. Detailed records of astronomical observations were kept from about the sixth century B.C.E. until the introduction of Western[…]

Guide on How to Translate Old Records

Unless you have succeeded through palaeography for beginners and know where to start, translating the old records in a foreign language may sound confusing. A reason for that lies in the way such translation work is approached by the experts. Unlike most legal or research paper translations, the old records may relate to anything and[…]