Waging Health: Women in Medicine in Nineteenth-Century American Wars

The nineteenth century is a decisive time in the development of medicine and the medical profession in Europe and North America. Thinking of war from a U.S.-American perspective will almost immediately evoke associations of male soldiers fighting heroic battles for a good cause such as democracy and/or the liberation of people from dictatorships, tyrannies, and[…]

Dr. Benjamin Rush: Medical Quackery in the Yellow Fever Epidemic of 1793

The contradiction in his character is particularly well illustrated by his behavior during the Philadelphia yellow fever epidemic of 1793. By Dr. Robert L. NorthFormer Professor of Internal MedicineThe University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Introduction Benjamin Rush, MD (1745–1813), was not only the most well known physician in 18th-century America, he was[…]

Russia and the Medical Drug Trade in the Seventeenth Century

Examining what drugs were available in Russia and the great diversity of drugs traded in early modern Europe. Summary This article deals with the trade in medicines into Russia in the seventeenth century. Both the early modern medical drug trade, and Russian medicine, have previously received substantial attention, but no work has thus far been[…]

The Fate of Religious Minorities during the Medieval Black Death

The plague swept through Christian Europe and Islamdom at roughly the same time – between 1347 and 1351. Pandemics are nothing new—they scythed through the ancient world as they did the pre-modern and, as we know to our grief and confusion, they are still mowing us down today. We might think that human nature is[…]

Shahnameh: Ferdowsi’s Medieval ‘Book of Kings’

The work covers the entire history of ancient Persia from the creation of the world to the Muslim Arab conquest of 651 CE. Introduction The Shahnameh (“Book of Kings”, composed 977-1010 CE) is a medieval epic written by the poet Abolqasem Ferdowsi (l. c. 940-1020 CE) in order to preserve the myths, legends, history, language,[…]

Ten Great Ancient and Medieval Persian Poets

These poets would affect the literary arts of cultures around the world and continue to inspire readers in the present day. Introduction Persian literature derives from a long oral tradition of poetic storytelling. The first recorded example of this tradition is the Behistun Inscription of Darius I (the Great, r. 522-486 BCE), carved on a[…]