Eisenhower and the ‘Red Menace’ Conspiracies

Two distinct and contradictory images dominate our understanding of Eisenhower, McCarthy, and the communist question. On March 4, 1954, the editorial cartoonist Herbert Block took on one of the most controversial issues of the time in his daily offering in the Washington Post. He featured two of the dramatis personae of the day: President Dwight[…]

Lessons on Humility and Truth-Seeking from Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin spoke and wrote in ways that, if taken up now, could begin to erode the polarization of the current era. Introduction The previous year in the United States was a turbulent one, filled with political strife, protests over racism and a devastating pandemic. Underlying all three has been a pervasive political polarization, made[…]

Milo and Cicero’s ‘Pro Milone’: Chaos and Mob Violence in Ancient Rome

Milo organized bands of armed slaves, hired thugs, and gladiators in opposition to Clodius. Introduction Titus Annius Milo Papianus (died 48 BC) was a Roman political agitator. The son of Gaius Papius Celsus, he was adopted by his maternal grandfather, Titus Annius Luscus. In 52 BC, he was prosecuted for the murder of Publius Clodius[…]

Democracy and Mob Rule: The Problem of Freedom in Ancient Athens

Democracies and Republics, the best of all political structures, have a way of destroying themselves if not cherished and properly governed. By Aris Teon After World War II democracy began to be viewed in the West as the best possible form of government. However, a history of democratic states shows that freedom is not something[…]