The Medieval West African Trading Empire of Ghana

The early West African societies of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai all created empires that gained much of their wealth from trade. Introduction The kingdom of Ghana lasted from sometime before 500 C.E. until its final collapse in the 1200s. It arose in the semidesert Sahel and eventually spread over the valley between the Senegal and[…]

The Salt Trade of Ancient West Africa

When exactly salt became a trade commodity is unknown, but the exchange of salt for cereals dates back to prehistory. Introduction Salt from the Sahara desert was one of the major trade goods of ancient West Africa where very little naturally occurring deposits of the mineral could be found. Transported via camel caravans and by[…]

Keeping Warm in Ancient Rome

Hot drinks and early bedtimes were key to a comfortable winter. Images of Italy and the Mediterranean generally include bright sun shining on sparkling water and dusty groves of olive trees. In fact, according to Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, who wrote a 10-volume treatise on architecture in the first century, “Divine providence has so ordered it that[…]

A Trail in the Moselle Valley, Ancient Roman Wine Country

The Moselle River owes its name to the Romans, who called it Mosella or ‘little Meuse’. Introduction The Moselle Valley is Germany’s oldest winegrowing region. The Romans brought viticulture to this area and planted vines along the Moselle River 2000 years ago. After settling the region c. 50 BCE and establishing the city of Trier (Augusta Treverorum) in[…]

Oriental Sages About the Relationship Between a Man and a Woman

Eastern philosophy is distinguished by its deep meaning and the special attitude to things and phenomena. The cornerstone of all the philosophical schools of the East is the idea that everything is energy. At the same time, the world is polar — there are yin and yang. Also, there are both positive and negative energies[…]

Top 4 Online Relationship Strategies to Try during the Pandemic

The 2020 Covid-19 has become a fact of life for everyone, advocating caution when we are shopping, exercising, traveling, or doing any of the activities we took for granted a year ago. One side effect of so many socializing outlets being forced to close for lengthy spells has been an upsurge in singles signing up[…]