The Price of Public Resistance to Safety during the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

At the first hint the virus was receding, people pushed to get life back to normal. Unfortunately another surge of the disease followed. Introduction Picture the United States struggling to deal with a deadly pandemic. State and local officials enact a slate of social-distancing measures, gathering bans, closure orders and mask mandates in an effort[…]

Band of Angels: Sister Nurses in the Spanish-American War

The need for trained nurses was heightened — and the work of the sister nurses in the Civil War was not forgotten. By Dr. Mercedes GrafFormer Professor of PsychologyIllinois School of Professional PsychologyGovernors State University Introduction Although thousands of patriotic women rushed off to care for the sick and wounded during America’s bloody Civil War[…]

Alonso de Ovalle’s Early Modern ‘Tabula geographica regni Chile’

In 1646, a Chilean man named Alonso de Ovalle published an illustrated text titled Historical account of the Kingdom of Chile. By Dr. Catherine E. BurdickProfessor of Arts and HumanitiesUniversidad Mayor de Chile Introduction What images might enhance a map of a distant land in a remote corner of the world? Might lava-spewing volcanoes, a strutting[…]

The Ancient Peruvian Moche Royal Tombs of Sipán

The tombs were found almost completely undisturbed. A Golden Discovery In 1987, Peruvian archaeologist Walter Alva received a tip from the police that local villagers had discovered gold in one of the huacas (a term for ancient sacred sites used widely in Peru) and were looting artifacts at the site of Huaca Rajada in the town of Sipán, near[…]

A Brief History of 6 Interesting Games in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds

The history of games dates to long ago. Games were used to pass the time, but some people used them to learn and share life’s experiences. Techniques of the games varied from one person to another. People’s intelligence was also measured by how they performed at a particular game. Board and dice games were one[…]