War and Trauma: A History of Military Medicine since the Ancient World

It was in fact during the Napoleonic wars at the beginning of the 19th century that the organized practice of military medicine began. By Dr. Charles Van Way, IIIColonel, US Army Reserve, Medical Corps, RetiredEmeritus Professor of SurgeryUniversity of Missouri – Kansas City School of MedicineDirector, UMKC Shock Trauma Research Center War is an actual,[…]

Ancient Philosophers on Mental Illness

Exploring how the ancient philosophers from Plato to late antiquity understood mental illness. Abstract This article outlines when, how and in what kind of contexts the phenomenon of mental illness was recognized in the ancient philosophical texts, how mental illness was understood in terms of the body–mind interaction, and how mental disorders of the medical[…]

Trotula: Medicine and Women in the Middle Ages

The “Book on the Conditions of Women” was novel in its adoption of the new Arabic medicine that had just begun to make inroads into Europe. Introduction Trotula is a name referring to a group of three texts on women’s medicine that were composed in the southern Italian port town of Salerno in the 12th[…]

Medieval Medical Prescriptions in the 15th and 16th Centuries

Knowledge preserved in medieval books enjoyed a longevity that extended beyond the period of the manuscript book. Abstract This article examines a fifteenth-century remedy book, Oxford, Bodleian Library, Rawlinson c. 299, and describes its collection of 314 medieval medical prescriptions. The recipes are organised broadly from head to toe, and often several remedies are offered[…]

The Advancement of Health Care in Medieval Venice

Venice’s embodied a unique combination that fostered innovation, entrepreneurship, and creativity. When Venetians invented quarantine in 1348, the government proclamation was based on the fact that this cosmopolitan city could put two and two together. The Venetian Republic had based its thriving economy on trade by sea and it became obvious that when foreign ships[…]

Laughter Really Is Medicine for the Mind and Body

Whether in the form of a discreet titter or a full-on roar, laughter comes with many benefits for physical and mental health. Introduction Amusement and pleasant surprises – and the laughter they can trigger – add texture to the fabric of daily life. Those giggles and guffaws can seem like just silly throwaways. But laughter,[…]

The Sick Child in Early Modern England, 1580-1720

Exploring some myths about childhood illness and treatment in the early modern period. Introduction One morning in 1630, fourteen-year-old Richard Wilmore from Stratford vomited ‘black Worms, about an inch and a half long, with six feet, and little red heads’. After vomiting, he ‘was almost dead, but a little time after he revived’. The next[…]

Medieval Medicine of Western Europe

The Western medical tradition often traces its roots directly to the early Greek civilization. Introduction Medieval medicine in Western Europe was composed of a mixture of existing ideas from antiquity. In the Early Middle Ages, following the fall of the Western Roman Empire, standard medical knowledge was based chiefly upon surviving Greek and Roman texts, preserved in monasteries and elsewhere. Medieval medicine is widely[…]

Medicus: The Doctor in Ancient Greece and Rome

Me’dicus (ἰατρός), the name given by the ancients to every professor of the healing art, whether physician or surgeon, and accordingly both divisions of the medical profession will here be included under that term. In Greece and Asia Minor physicians seem to have been held in high esteem; for, not to mention the apotheosis of[…]

Chirurgia: Surgery in Ancient Greece and Rome

The earliest remaining surgical writings are those of Hippocrates. The practice of surgery was, for a long time, considered by the ancients to be merely a part of a physician’s duty; but as it is now almost universally allowed to be a separate branch of the profession, it will perhaps be more convenient to treat[…]

The ‘Four Temperaments’ in Ancient and Medieval Medicine

The Greek physician Hippocrates (460–370 BCE) who developed it into a medical theory. Introduction The four temperament theory is a proto-psychological theory which suggests that there are four fundamental personality types: sanguine, choleric, melancholic, and phlegmatic.[2][3] Most formulations include the possibility of mixtures among the types where an individual’s personality types overlap and they share[…]

8 Reasons CBD Oil Is Recommended for Sleep

Cannabidiol, or CBD, is the most common ingredient in marijuana or cannabis. It has thousands of benefits such as relieving pain and anxiety, promotes heart health, and even reduces acne. There are tons of other benefits in general that make CBD an excellent substance to take to promote overall health and the ability to live[…]

How to Understand the Structure of CRO Companies

CRO (Contract Research Organization) companies can vary in size from global companies to small specialized groups. CRO companies offer services across all clinical trial phases and therapeutic areas including Feasibility Assessments, Ethics Committee, Regulatory Submissions, Data Management, Statistical Analysis, Medical Monitoring, Safety Services, Central Lab Services, Medical Write Ups and Project and Vendor Management. The[…]

How the Polio Vaccine Went from the Lab to the Public

The Cutter Incident was a tragic error showed how complicated it can be to distribute vaccines on a mass scale. Introduction In 1955, after a field trial involving 1.8 million Americans, the world’s first successful polio vaccine was declared “safe, effective, and potent.” It was arguably the most significant biomedical advance of the past century.[…]

Cannabis Use Throughout History: How We Came to Love CBD

Recently, purekana cbd oil and other CBD supplement products have gained a tremendous amount of attention, quickly becoming one of the most widely used natural supplements. CBD is not new, though; people have been using the cannabinoids contained with cannabis plants throughout history for their healing properties. Historians have found evidence that CBD and cannabis[…]

How the Civil War Drove Medical Innovation

The federal government was able to spur innovation to meet the needs of the crisis. Introduction The current COVID-19 pandemic, the largest public health crisis in a century, threatens the health of people across the globe. The U.S. has had the most diagnosed cases – surpassing 6 million – and more than 180,000 deaths. But[…]

Two Surgeries, 800 Years Apart: Aztec Medical Technology and Today

An archaeologist’s hip surgery prompts him to think of the experience of a Puebloan woman who survived a terrible fall centuries ago. As an archaeologist, I’ve spent a lot of time wondering what life was like in the past. I’ve also been injured a time or two, and I’ve wondered if any of my nonfatal[…]

The Steampunk Doctor: Practicing Medicine in a Victorian Mechanical Age

Steampunk examines the consequences extraordinary medical discoveries can have on both individuals and societies. Abstract Influenced by both 19th-century literature and popular representations of science, the figure of the medical doctor in steampunk fiction is marked by ambiguity. At the same time a scientist, a wizard and a mechanic, the steampunk doctor exists halfway between[…]

Elisabeth Kübler-Ross: Pioneering Death as a Part of Medical Practice

Kübler-Ross was one of the central figures in the hospice care movement. Introduction Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (July 8, 1926 – August 24, 2004) was a Swiss-American psychiatrist, a pioneer in near-death studies, and author of the internationally best-selling book, On Death and Dying (1969), where she first discussed her theory of the five stages of grief,[…]

Helen Taussig: Changing the Face of Medicine for Children in the 20th Century

She was the first woman to be elected head of the American Heart Association. Introduction Helen Brooke Taussig (May 24, 1898 – May 20, 1986) was an American cardiologist, working in Baltimore and Boston, who founded the field of pediatric cardiology. She is credited with developing the concept for a procedure that would extend the[…]

Ginger’s Role in Cures and Courtroom Battles in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Exploring the surprising and complex ways that ginger has played a role in preventing sickness through history. Introduction Some people use ginger to help with tummy troubles, but for others it has caused more problems than it has solved. We explore the surprising and complex ways that ginger has played a role in preventing sickness[…]

Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Father of Modern Neuroscience

Although he became one of the founders of neuroscience, as a young man Ramón y Cajal wanted to be an artist. Introduction Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a Spanish histologist (study of tissues) and physician who (along with Camillo Golgi) won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine[…]

Paul Broca: 19th-Century French Physician, Anatomist, and Medical Pioneer

Paul Broca’s early scientific works dealt with the histology of cartilage and bone, but he also studied the pathology of cancer. Introduction Paul Pierre Broca (June 28, 1824 – July 9, 1880) was a French physician, anatomist, and anthropologist. He is famous for his work on brain lateralization, and the discovery of the center for[…]