The History of Systemic Racism That Opponents of Critical Race Theory Prefer to Hide

The foundation of America, and of systemic racism, happened at the same time and from the same consciously created laws. Critical Race Theory (CRT) has become a lightning rod for conservative ire at any discussion of racism, anti-racism, or the non-white history of America. Across the country, bills in Republican-controlled legislatures have attempted to prevent[…]

Featured Scholar: Kimberlé W. Crenshaw and Critical Race Theory

Crenshaw is known for her work on intersectionality – how overlapping or intersecting social identities relate to systems and structures of oppression. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction Kimberlé Williams Crenshaw is Isidor and Seville Sulzbacher Professor of Law at Columbia University. This introduction is taken from her profile page at the institution. Crenshaw[…]

Critical Race Theory: History, Themes, and Debate

The basic tenets of CRT include that racism and disparate racial outcomes are the result of complex, changing and often subtle social and institutional dynamics. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction Critical race theory (CRT) is a body of legal scholarship and an academic movement of civil-rights scholars and activists in the United States that seeks to[…]

Sipping the Feels: Racial Justice, Mindfulness, Transformation, and Healing

Mindfulness practice can bring about transformation on different levels. Interview with Rhonda V. Magee, MA, JDProfessor of LawUniversity of Minnesota What Is Systemic Racism? The crisis playing out through the media is only one symptom of a larger system of inequity, which permeates our society and which most white people are not able to see.[…]

Jab over Java: Viola Fletcher and Hughes Van Ellis – 1921 Tulsa Survivors

NBC Sunday TODAY Marking the 100th anniversary of one of the worst outbreaks of racist violence in American history, Viola Fletcher, 107, and Hughes Van Ellis, 100, open up to NBC’s Morgan Radford for Sunday TODAY about surviving the Tulsa Race Massacre. Viola was just seven years old when a white mob attacked her home.[…]

The Eufala Election Race Massacre of 1874

The White League had formed in 1874 as an insurgent, white paramilitary group in Grant Parish and nearby parishes. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction The Election Massacre of 1874, or Coup of 1874, took place on election day, November 3, 1874, near Eufaula, Alabama in Barbour County. Freedmen comprised a majority of the population and had been electing Republican candidates[…]

Early Reconstruction and the Memphis Race Massacre of 1866

The white planters wanted to drive freedmen out of Memphis and back to plantations, to support cotton cultivation with their labor. Curated/Reviewed by Matthew A. McIntoshPublic HistorianBrewminate Introduction The Memphis massacre of 1866[1] was a series of violent events that occurred from May 1 to 3, 1866 in Memphis, Tennessee. The racial violence was ignited by political, social, and[…]

1968 as Living History in the Black Freedom Struggle

Unresolved race matters from the past intersect with twenty-first century activism to counter the continued devaluation of black lives. Abstract New questions about the legacies of 1968 and the 1960s in general are presenting themselves to us, as scholars and as citizens, ever more urgently. This is particularly true of race and racial struggle, as[…]

A Successful White Supremacist Coup in 1898 Amplified by Lies

A successful violent coup perpetrated and fueled by white supremacist ideology spread happened in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1898. Introduction While experts debate whether the U.S. Capitol siege was an attempted coup, there is no debate that what happened in 1898 in Wilmington, North Carolina, was a coup – and its consequences were tragic. These[…]

Citizens’ Councils, Conservatism, and White Supremacy in Louisiana, 1964-1972

White supremacist resistance against the civil rights movement transformed its rhetoric while seeking to align with the conservatism. This article examines the development of Massive Resistance, in particular Citizens’ Councils, in Louisiana after the council movement in the South had passed its zenith when being unable to prevent the passage of federal civil rights and[…]

The Whistles of George Wallace in the 1968 Presidential Campaign

Wallace appeared on the national scene in the early sixties to give an unadulterated voice to feelings of anger and fear felt by whites. Abstract Gender and emotions are important factors in the rise of modern U.S. conservatism. This article examines the 1968 presidential election as a pivotal moment in the development of the New[…]

Reconstruction and Insurrection in 1898 Wilmington, North Carolina

The violent overthrow of a duly elected government by a group of white supremacists. Introduction The Wilmington insurrection of 1898, also known as the Wilmington massacre of 1898 or the Wilmington coup of 1898, occurred in Wilmington, North Carolina, on Thursday, November 10, 1898. It is considered a turning point in post-Reconstruction North Carolina politics.[…]

The Crescent City ‘White League’ and Insurrection in 1874 New Orleans

The Battle of Liberty Place was an insurrection by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Era state government. Introduction The Battle of Liberty Place, or Battle of Canal Street, was an attempted insurrection and coup d’etat by the Crescent City White League against the Reconstruction Era Louisiana Republican state government on September 14,[…]

The End of Apartheid: Valuable Lessons in a Turbulent Age

Anti-Apartheid protest in the 1980s are mere snapshots of time in the long journey towards equality, paved by the sweat and blood of those in the African National Congress and beyond. Paul Weinberg/Wikicommons Understanding the impact of Apartheid requires looking beyond Nelson Mandela’s achievements to the bloody struggles of the African National Congress and international forces prolonging the violence. By Dr. David Robinson / 10.10.2018 Lecturer of[…]

The African Union Society of Rhode Island, 1780-1824

The first separate black church in Newport was the Union Colored Church and Society The society is considered one of the first formal organizations founded by free blacks in the United States. By Michael J. Barga Board Member Catholic Social Workers’ National Association Background Mutual aid societies were created by free blacks in the early[…]

A Brief History of Jim Crow Laws and Racial Segregation

Convict labor at the State Lime Grinding Plant, Virginia / From Virginia; Its Agricultural and Industrial Resources, 1914 Immediately following the Civil War and adoption of the 13th Amendment, most states of the former Confederacy adopted “Black Codes”, laws modeled on former slave laws. Introduction Immediately following the Civil War and adoption of the 13th Amendment,[…]

Who Was Emmett Till?

A 1950s photograph of Emmett Till and his mother Mamie Till Mobley, during a visit to Jackson, Miss. AP Photo/Rogelio V. Solis Most Mississippi civil rights history leads back to the widespread outrage over the Till case in the summer of 1955. By Dr. Davis W. Houck / 07.13.2018 Professor of Communications Florida State University The U.S.[…]

Government Reopens Case of Emmett Till

This undated photo shows Emmett Louis Till, a 14-year-old Black Chicago boy, who was kidnapped, tortured, and murdered in 1955 in Mississippi. The federal government has reopened its investigation into his slaying. | AP The federal government has reopened its investigation into the slaying of Emmett Till. By Jay Reeves / 07.12.2018 The federal government[…]

The History of Jim Crow Segregation

By Dr. Katherine Mellon Charron Associate Professor of History North Carolina State University Introduction Segregation contradicts what most students have learned about American freedom and democracy. Textbooks locate segregation’s origins in Southern disenfranchisement laws of the 1890s and highlight the Supreme Court’s 1896 “separate but equal” ruling in Plessy v. Ferguson. The majority of African Americans still lived[…]

The Hidden Influence of Langston Hughes on MLK

Martin Luther King Jr.‘s dream – which alternated between shattered and hopeful – can be traced back to Hughes’ poetry. AP Photo In order to avoid being labeled a communist sympathizer, King needed to publicly distance himself from the controversial poet. Privately, King found ways to channel Hughes’ prose. By Dr. Jason Miller / 03.30.2018 Professor[…]

Josephine Baker: Iconic Entertainer, Resistance Spy, and American Hero

Josephine Baker | AP By Chauncey K. Robinson / 03.01.2018 It seems only fitting with Black History Month closing out, and Women’s History Month beginning, to highlight a Black woman who exemplified strength and resilience in the face of discrimination and oppression. Famed entertainer Josephine Baker was not only a pioneer in breaking color barriers[…]

Meet the Theologian Who Helped MLK See the Value of Nonviolence

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. , chats with African-Americans during a door-to-door campaign in 1964. AP Photo/JAB By Dr. Paul Harvey / 01.11.2018 Professor of American History University of Colorado After this last tumultuous year of political rancor and racial animus, many people could well be asking what can sustain them over the next coming days: How do they[…]

Race and the White Elephant War of 1884

P. T. Barnum’s white elephant Toung Taloung, featured in an extra supplement to the Illustrated London News, January 26th 1884 / Wikimedia Commons Feuding impresarios, a white-but-not-white-enough elephant, and racist ads for soap — Ross Bullen on how a bizarre episode in circus history became an unlikely forum for discussing 19th-century theories of race, and inadvertently[…]