Philolaus: Philosophy and Science in Classical Greece

Philolaus is said to have claimed that mathematical reason has a certain affinity with the nature of the universe, By Daniel CostaHistorian Introduction Philolaus of Croton (c. 470 – c. 385 BCE) was an ancient Greek philosopher from Magna Graecia, in modern-day southern Italy. He shared the Pythagoreans’ interest in music, numbers and the soul, which shone through his output. He[…]

Science as We Know It Can’t Explain Consciousness – Yet

One day we will have a science of consciousness, but it won’t be science as we know it today. By Dr. Philip GoffAssistant Professor of PhilosophyDurham University Seeking Alternatives Explaining how something as complex as consciousness can emerge from a grey, jelly-like lump of tissue in the head is arguably the greatest scientific challenge of[…]

Jab over Java: How Brain Scientists Think about Consciousness

Exploring how neurologists and neuroscientists study and view the conscious mind. A Presentation by Closer to TruthYouTube Is consciousness a scientific problem to be solved? Or a philosophical problem that will remain a mystery? What do scientists who study the brain think? And why do they think the way they do? These leading brain scientists[…]

MUM’s the Word: The Science of Consciousness and a Minimal Unifying Model

Minimal unifying models characterize widely accepted, necessary properties of most conscious experiences. By Dr. Wanja WieseInstitute for PhilosophyRuhr-Universität Bochum Note: This is not a guest post. It is a republication of a scientific article published under a Creative Commons license (see bottom of post) for the journal Neuroscience of Consciousness 1:2020 (niaa013). under the title[…]

Brewminating: The Science behind the Perfect Cup of Coffee

Its chemical composition, flavor and shelf life, as well as the uses for coffee grounds after brewing. By Dr. Gabriel Keith HarrisAssociate ProfessorFood, Bioprocessing, and Nutrition SciencesNorth Carolina State University Introduction Coffee is a popular beverage around the world. About half of consumers drink coffee brewed from grounds. The other half drink instant coffee. In[…]

Sipping the Feels: Training Your Brain for Lucid Dreaming

Research on lucid dreams is still in its infancy, but some induction techniques already hold real promise – and most can be tried in the comfort of your own bedroom. By Achilleas PavlouPhD Researcher in Cognitive NeuroscienceUniversity of Essex Introduction Dreams can often be confusing and blurry experiences. Reduced critical thinking, little to no access to[…]

A Brief History of the Science of Color

Isaac Newton’s work led to breakthroughs in optics, physics, chemistry, perception, and the study of color in nature. In the 1660s, English physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton began a series of experiments with sunlight and prisms. He demonstrated that clear white light was composed of seven visible colors. By scientifically establishing our visible spectrum (the[…]

Brewminating: Somniloquy – Why Do I Talk in My Sleep?

Watching someone talk in their sleep can be funny and sometimes even scary, but what’s happening in the brain when this takes place? Presentation from Seeker From Wikipedia: Sleep-talking (or somniloquy) is a parasomnia that refers to talking aloud while asleep. It can range from simple mumbling sounds to loud shouts and long, frequently inarticulate speeches, and can occur[…]

A Brief History of Solar Panels since the 19th Century

Inventors have been advancing solar technology for more than a century and a half. By Elizabeth Chu and D. Lawrence TarazanoUnited States Patent and Trademark Office Long before the first Earth Day was celebrated on April 22, 1970, generating awareness about the environment and support for environmental protection, scientists were making the first discoveries in[…]

Seven Ancient Cultures and How They Shaped Astronomy

With all their inventions and discoveries, it seems like the world connived to shape the astronomy of today. By Dr. Jason CookPlanetary AstronomerTelescopic Watch Introduction We as human beings are greatly attracted to beauty. And there is nothing more beautiful than the heavenly bodies set above us to see. From the stars, sun, moon, and[…]

The 17th-Century Cloth Merchant Who Discovered the Vast Realm of Tiny Microbes

Van Leeuwenhoek, who discovered bacteria, is one of the most important figures in the history of medicine. Introduction Imagine trying to cope with a pandemic like COVID-19 in a world where microscopic life was unknown. Prior to the 17th century, people were limited by what they could see with their own two eyes. But then[…]

The Vienna Dioscurides: A Medical and Scientific Text in Ancient Byzantium

The manuscript was produced around 512 C.E. for the imperial princess Anicia Juliana in Constantinople. By Dr. Courtney Ann TomaselliProfessor of Art HistoryElon University Introduction For many, the term “Byzantine art” conjures otherworldly images of holy figures in golden icons and mosaics. But opening the pages of the large, sumptuously illustrated Byzantine manuscript known as the Vienna Dioscurides (the colloquial[…]

Anna Atkins and the Cyanotype Process in Botanical Illustration in the 19th Century

Although today Atkins’s prints are sold and viewed as art, they were originally made as botanical illustrations. By Elliot KrasnopolerPhD Candidate in Art HistoryBryn Mawr College Who Was Anna Atkins? We are looking at a white-ish blue, organically-shaped form radiating from a central point, and surrounded by a rich, flat cyan-blue tone. Little here gives[…]

Francis Galton and the Racist Pseudoscience of Eugenics in the 19th Century

Smart people can have really bad ideas – like selectively breeding human beings to allegedly “improve” the species. Introduction A popular pseudoscience was leaving its mark on American culture a century ago in everything from massive reductions in quotas for immigration to the U.S., to thousands of “fitter family” contests at county fairs, to a[…]

Jesuit Influence on Post-Medieval Chinese Astronomy

Studies on ancient Chinese science suggest that up till the 14th century CE it was much more advanced than Europe in a technological sense. Introduction Ancient China had seen little Western contact before the 16th century CE, the language, culture and science all being allowed to develop independently of foreign influence. By the time European Jesuit missionaries arrived in[…]

Medieval Science and Mathematics

Examining early medieval approaches to various types of knowledge we might consider today to be ‘scientific’ and early universities. Introduction The idea of science in the early Middle Ages is a broad one that encompasses many subjects. To understand this, we should think of the root of the word ‘science’, which comes from the Latin[…]

European Science in the Middle Ages

Roman and early medieval scientific texts were read and studied, contributing to the understanding of nature in the light of reason. Introduction European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe. Following the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the decline in knowledge of Greek,[…]

The Orkney Finnmen Legends: From Early Modern Science to Modern Myth

How early modern science’s fascination with unfamiliar objects helped a new chapter of Scottish folklore. This article, The Orkney Finnmen Legends: From Early Modern Science to Modern Myth, was originally published in The Public Domain Review under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. If you wish to reuse it please see: At the end of the 17th[…]

The Three Major Forms of Modern-Day Astrology

Thanks to the trend of publishing daily horoscopes in newspapers and magazines, every person in America knows about astrology. The general idea is that astrology calculates the position of the sun, moon, stars, and other celestial objects to determine the impact that can have on our everyday lives. However, most people are not aware of[…]

Biology in the Ancient and Medieval Eras

The earliest humans had and passed on knowledge about plants and animals to increase their chances of survival. Introduction The history of biology traces the study of the living world from ancient to modern times. Although the concept of biology as a single coherent field arose in the 19th century, the biological sciences emerged from[…]

A History of Science in Ancient Cultures

Exploring scientific work and thought in ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Greece, Rome, India, and China. Introduction The history of science in early cultures refers to the study of protoscience in ancient history, prior to the development of science in the Middle Ages. In prehistoric times, advice and knowledge was passed from generation to generation in[…]

“More Lively Counterfaits”: Experimental Imaging at the Birth of Modern Science

Exploring forms of image making which pushed the boundaries of 17th-century book printing. This article, “More Lively Counterfaits”: Experimental Imaging at the Birth of Modern Science, was originally published in The Public Domain Review under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0. If you wish to reuse it please see: From infographics to digital renders, today’s scientists have[…]

How to Understand the Structure of CRO Companies

CRO (Contract Research Organization) companies can vary in size from global companies to small specialized groups. CRO companies offer services across all clinical trial phases and therapeutic areas including Feasibility Assessments, Ethics Committee, Regulatory Submissions, Data Management, Statistical Analysis, Medical Monitoring, Safety Services, Central Lab Services, Medical Write Ups and Project and Vendor Management. The[…]

A History of the Scientific Revolution, 1500-1700

Exploring a time when science emerged as a new way of gaining knowledge about the world. Introduction Before this time, Europeans relied on two main sources for their understanding of nature. One was the Bible and religious teachings. The other was the work of classical thinkers, especially the philosopher Aristotle. During the Scientific Revolution, scientists[…]

Innovations and Adaptations in the Medieval Islamic Renaissance

They improved ways of doing things that influenced the Scientific Revolution in Europe centuries later. Introduction In the Middle Ages, Muslim people developed a rich culture. Here are many contributions made by Muslims to world civilization. By 750 C.E., Muslims ruled Spain, North Africa, the Middle East, and much of central Asia. Over the next[…]

Discoveries and Inventions in Ancient and Medieval China

Exploring discoveries and inventions made by the Chinese between about 200 and 1400 C.E. Introduction Over the centuries, Chinese scholars and scientists studied engineering, mathematics, science, and medicine, among other subjects. Their studies led to scientific and technological progress that was often far ahead of advances in the rest of the world. To understand the[…]

Robert Hooke, 17th-Century Scientist Extraordinaire

He argued with Newton, and both were partially right. Introduction Groundbreaking discoveries in science often come with two iconic images, one representing the breakthrough and the other, the discoverer. For example, the page from Darwin’s notebook sketching the branching pattern of evolution often accompanies a portrait of Darwin in his early years when the notebook[…]

Marie Tharp: The Woman Who Pioneered Mapping the Ocean Six Decades Ago

Geologist and cartographer Tharp changed scientific thinking about what lay at the bottom of the ocean. Introduction Despite all the deep-sea expeditions and samples taken from the seabed over the past 100 years, humans still know very little about the ocean’s deepest reaches. And there are good reasons to learn more. Most tsunamis start with[…]

Rosalind Franklin: The Woman Who Discovered the Secret to Life

Franklin was born a century ago, and her X-ray crystallography work crucially contributed to determining the structure of DNA. Introduction What do coal, viruses and DNA have in common? The structures of each – the predominant power source of the early 20th century, one of the most remarkable forms of life on Earth and the[…]