Custer’s Defeat at Little Bighorn

The Little Bighorn Battlefield, Lodge Grass, Montana / Photo by Acroterion, Wikimedia Commons The battle is also known as “Custer’s Last Stand” and the “Battle of the Greasy Grass.” Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 11.12.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Background Overview The ‘Battle of the Little Bighorn’ was one of the most famous battles[…]

Woodrow Wilson and Consequential Armistice Decisions

The heads of the “Big Four” nations at the Paris Peace Conference, 27 May 1919. From left to right: David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Georges Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson Woodrow Wilson has received generally high grades for presidential leadership in surveys of historians, political scientists, and biographers. Is that valid? By Dr. Robert Brent Toplin / 11.08.2018 Professor Emeritus[…]

Woodrow Wilson and the Entry of the U.S. into World War I

Wilson campaign vehicle, New York City, March 1916: “Who Keeps Us Out of War?” How idealistic was he, really?    By Dr. Roger Peace (left) and Dr. Jeremy Kuzmarov / 11.10.2018 Peace: Adjunct Professor of History, Tallahassee Community College Kuzmarov: Lecturer in History, Tulsa Community College World War One marked a turning point in human[…]

A History of the Populist ‘People’s Party’, 1891-1908

William Jennings Bryan during the 1896 campaign for U.S. president / U.S. Information Agency, Wikimedia Commons For a few years, this party played a major role as a force in American politics. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 11.09.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The People’s Party (also known as the Populist Party or the Populists) was an agrarian-populist political party in the[…]

Gridlock to Victory: The Women’s Suffrage Crusade in Washington, 1848-1920

Women suffragists picketing in front of the White house. The first picket line – College day in the picket line line, 1917 / Wikimedia Commons Washington suffragists supported the national crusade until the 1920 ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. By Dr. Mildred Andrews / 02.26.2004 Social Historian Introduction ashington women won[…]

The Danger of Treating Founders as ‘Creatures of Legend More than History’

Neither Jefferson nor any Founding Father ought to be treated as statues—i.e., “creatures of legend more than history.” By Dr. M. Andrew Holowchak / 09.27.2015 In a recent article on Thomas Jefferson’s mythic and contradictory legacy for Time, Joseph Ellis begins with an account of an encounter during a book tour with an outraged woman. She snaps: “Mr. Ellis, you[…]

The Following Trials and Impacts of the Boston Massacre of 1770

National Archives at College Park / Wikimedia Commons A tense situation due to a heavy British military presence in Boston boiled over to five protesters killed and six wounded. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.22.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Engraving by Paul Revere that sold widely in the colonies – “The Bloody Massacre Perpetrated in King Street[…]

The Sit-In Movement in the Struggle for Civil Rights

Lunch Counter Sit-in, Greensboro, North Carolina, 1960 / Library of Congress, Public Domain On February 1, 1960, a new tactic was added to the peaceful activists’ strategy – the sit-in. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.18.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief By 1960, the Civil Rights Movement had gained strong momentum. The nonviolent measures employed[…]

The Boston Tea Party: Protest or Vandalism?

The Bostonians Paying the Excise-man, or Tarring and Feathering, Von Karkatir / Public Domain The Boston Tea Party, which involved the willful destruction of 342 crates of British tea, proved a significant development on the path to the American Revolution. British Taxation Policies Thomas Malton the Younger, London headquarters of the British East India Company / Yale Center[…]

Meeting of Eleanor Roosevelt and Mary Pos: First Lady and First Female Travel Journalist

   Investigating potential correlations between Roosevelt’s and Pos’ ideas on women’s rights and intercultural understanding. By Dr. Babs Boter Professor of Literature Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam Abstract Mary Pos, self-proclaimed first female travel journalist from the Netherlands, met Eleanor Roosevelt first in 1937 during a women-only press conference at the White House, and then in 1950 when[…]

The Gilded Age in America: Rapid Growth as a Double-Edged Sword

Mill children in Macon, photo by Lewis Wickes Hine, 1909 / Library of Congress, Wikimedia Commons From the ashes of the American Civil War sprung an economic powerhouse. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.13.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief The Golden Spike: Does it really symbolize the completion of the transcontinental railroad? / Roadside America The[…]

The Golden Age of American Railroading

Celebration of completion of the First Transcontinental Railroad at what is now Golden Spike National Historic Site, Promontory Summit, Utah, photo by Andrew J. Russell (1869) / National Park Service, Wikimedia Commons In spite of technological progress, the “Gilded Age” after the Civil War was one of widespread corruption in which “robber barons” were supreme. After the American Civil[…]

Catholicism in the Early South

Saint Matthew’s Catholic Church in Mobile, Alabama / Photo by Altairisfar, Wikimedia Commons The Catholic Church in America began in a southern context, and Catholicism was the first form of Christianity to take root in the American South. By Dr. Maura Jane Farrelly Associate Professor of American Studies Brandeis University Introduction The Catholic Church in[…]

How FDR’s Presidency Inspired Term Limits

Franklin Roosevelt’s Gubernatorial portrait, by Jacob H. Perskie, 1941 / Wikimedia Commons The Founding Fathers considered term limits, but ultimately rejected the idea. It wasn’t until FDR’s unprecedented four terms that lawmakers reconsidered. By Dr. Peter Feuerherd / 04.12.2018 Professor of Journalism St. John’s University The Twenty-Second Amendment to the Constitution, proposed by Congress in[…]

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Pulpit

Judging from his public speeches, Franklin D. Roosevelt–aka FDR–may have been our most religious 20th century President. By Matthew Wills / 11.18.2015 Ronald Isetti argues in Presidential Studies Quarterly that it was Franklin Delano Roosevelt, which may surprise many. Isetti analyses FDR’s speeches as “political sermons and cultic orations,” dependent on “the language, stories, and symbols of[…]

‘The People’s Party’: Populism in 19th-Century America

Tea Party protest at the National Mall on September 12, 2009 / Photo by NYyankees51, Wikimedia Commons In the late nineteenth century, a new American political party sprung up to defend the interests of farmers.  Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 10.05.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The Populists were an agrarian-based political movement aimed at[…]

Populism and Labor Battles in the Gilded Age

“The Lucy Furnaces in 1886.” Carnegie Steel Company, Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania / Wikimedia Commons As the United States became a major industrial power, conflict between workers and factory owners intensified. Read about the Homestead Strike and the Pullman Strike, two of the most famous labor battles in American history. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh /[…]

The 1787 Constitutional Convention: Conflicts and Ratification

Although the original purpose of the convention was to amend the Articles of Confederation, some—though not all—delegates moved quickly to create a new framework for a more powerful national government. By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, et.al. Professor of History Ventura College Introduction The economic problems that plagued the thirteen states of the Confederation set the[…]

Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic

Radical pamphleteer Thomas Paine advocated a republic: a state without a king. By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, et.al. Professor of History Ventura College Introduction While monarchies dominated eighteenth-century Europe, American revolutionaries were determined to find an alternative to this method of government. Radical pamphleteer Thomas Paine, whose enormously popular essay Common Sense was first published[…]

Political Culture and Socialization in America

1952 Democratic Convention / Wikimedia Commons People gain an understanding and acceptance of the political culture of their nation through a process called political socialization. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 09.25.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Americans have strong positive feelings about the country’s flag. Government leaders and candidates giving speeches often are flanked by[…]

A Brief History of American Political Culture

Green Dragon Tavern, Union Street. Engraver: Russell. 1898 (approximate). Copy photograph from engraving by Russell of the tavern in the North End where the Sons of Liberty planned the Boston Tea Party. / Boston Public Library, Wikimedia Commons Every country has a political culture — widely shared beliefs, values, and norms that define the relationship[…]

Democracy and Its Discontents: Walter Lippmann and the Crisis of Politics (1919-1938)

Walter Lippmann / Public Domain The interwar period was a moment of deep crisis everywhere. By Dr. Francesco Regalzi / 04.12.2011 Professor of Political Science University of Turin The interwar period was a moment of deep crisis everywhere. The already strong shock of World War I, a conflict that involved different continents with political and[…]

Puerto Rico, 1917 to Today

Puerto Ricans were granted U.S. citizenship on the eve of America’s entry into the First World War. This picture comes from 1906 and shows the officer staff of the Regiment of Infantry. (Wikimedia Commons) With the quick flick of a pen in March 1917, Puerto Ricans suddenly had the opportunity to become American citizens. By Lorraine[…]

‘Hi Jolly’: 19th-Century Syrian Immigrant and Pioneer of the American West

Photo by Marine 69-71, Wikimedia Commons It was 1848, the end of the Mexican-American War. By Naomi Gingold / 05.15.2017 In the 19th century, one of the first Arab Muslim immigrants to the US — potentially the first-ever Syrian immigrant — came by invitation of the US military. It was 1848, the end of the[…]