George Platt Lynes: An Early-20th Century Gay Photographer and His Legacy

Lynes was a highly sought-after commercial and fashion photographer in the 1930s and 1940s. But he had to keep his most important body of work hidden away. From the late 1920s until his death in 1955, George Platt Lynes was one of the world’s most successful commercial and fine art photographers. His work was included[…]

The Architectural Patronage and Political Prowess of Herod the Great

Herod created architecture that implemented Roman technology, designs, and styles, while co-mingling them with his existing Hellenistic style of architecture. Abstract After supporting Marc Antony in the Battle of Actium (31 B.C.), King Herod, fearful of losing his power, went to Rome, apologized to Augustus and assured him that he was his biggest supporter. Augustus,[…]

Off the Record: A Photographer and Gerald Ford during a Crisis

It began with an image – the first on the White House Photography Office’s 4,527th roll of film for the Ford administration. He snaps a photograph of President Gerald Ford, who leans back in a tall Cabinet Room chair, smoking a pipe and listening intently to CIA Director Colby. The image is the first on[…]

Following a Migrant Route through Dust Bowl Camps of the 1930s

This network of FSA camps—the series of communities designed to be occupied and left on a seasonal basis—served the basic needs of their temporary residents. I still don’t know where I’ll be staying tonight. But I’ve accomplished the few tasks I needed to get done by this evening. I have a rental car that is[…]

Louis Garneray and Topographical Painting as Border Control in 19th-Century France

Exploring how topography was deployed as an instrument of French state formation in Louis Garneray’s Vues des Côtes de France. While the phrase ‘topographical images’ often calls to mind lush green landscapes, this article addresses a less familiar but very pertinent site of the topographic: ports. Specifically, Louis Garneray’s depiction of the ports of France in[…]

A History of Korean Architecture

Examining Korean architecture from the Neolithic period to the modern world. Introduction The early stages of Korean architecture date to the Neolithic period; archaeological evidence of ondol, the unique Korean floor panel heating system, was found among the remains of the burnished plain pottery culture. For the first century B.C.E., Korean architecture was influenced by the Chinese. After[…]

The Rock-Cut Tombs of Qizqapan, Iraqi Kurdistan of the Median-Achaemenid Periods, 600-330 BCE

The story of a cave, a man, and a girl he abducted for marriage. By Dr. Osama Shukir Muhammed AminAssociate Professor of NeurologyShorsh Military General Teaching Hospital O Creator of the material world, at what distance from the holy man (should the place for the dead body be)?” Ahura Mazda replied: “Three paces from the[…]

The Garden of Perfect Brightness: China’s Three Great Qing Emperors

The Yuanmingyuan was a paradise on earth for the Qing emperors. Introduction The Garden of Perfect Brightness—Yuanmingyuan (圓明園)—is the name of one of China’s most iconic monuments and tourist destinations. Its importance, more to Chinese than to foreign visitors, lies in the fact that it was an imperial palace and garden that was almost completely[…]

Calypso’s Island: A Short History of the Apocalypse

The End of History is proclaimed anew by each new generation and each new culture. Mesopotamia, Circa 2000 BCE Orphans of Ur O my flooded, washed awayBrickwork of Ur!My good house, my city,you who have been piled in heaps,As I lay myself down with youin a breach in your good ravaged house,I shall, like a fallen oxnever[…]

Göbekli Tepe: The World’s First Temple?

The fact that hunter–gatherer peoples could organize the construction of such a complex site as far back as the 10th or 11th millennium BC poses a serious challenge to the conventional view of the rise of civilization. Introduction Located in modern Turkey, Göbekli Tepe is one of the most important archaeological sites in the world. The[…]

Ottoman-Era Photographs Take on New Meaning in Their Digital Life

Thousands of images from the Pierre de Gigord Collection are now accessible online. By Isotta PoggiAcquisitions and Exhibitions of PhotographsGetty Institute In the 1980s the French collector Pierre de Gigord traveled to Turkey and collected thousands of Ottoman-era photographs in a variety of media and formats. The resulting Pierre de Gigord Collection is now housed in[…]

The Redemption of Saint Anthony in Gustave Flaubert

“Anthony: What Is the Point of All This? The Devil: There Is No Point!”, by Odilon Redon from his “The Temptation of Saint Anthony” series – Wikimedia Commons Gustave Flaubert, best known for his masterpiece Madame Bovary, spent nearly thirty years working on a surreal and largely ‘unreadable’ retelling of the temptation of Saint Anthony. Colin Dickey[…]

Fishing for Souls: Water Technology and the Dutch Baroque

Examining how issues of representation and aesthetics impacted the environmental history of early modern Europe. Early modern interaction with water, be it through coastal flooding, stranded sea-life, or trial by ordeal, was one of the totemic means of decoding and countering divine power. Water was woven into the fabric of cultural life: it was an active[…]

The Italian Renaissance: A Classical Rebirth

Introduction Art, literature, and architecture are forms of expression. These forms of expression often communicate what is happening during certain periods in time. Have you ever heard the word Renaissance? The word Renaissance means“rebirth” and comes from both the French and Latin languages. This word Renaissance describes a cultural movement that began in what is[…]

Social Structure and Aristocratic Representation in Medieval Hungarian Red Wax Seals

The first law differentiating the rights within nobility was enacted by the national assembly, the diet of Wladislaus II, in 1498.    By Ádám Novák (left) and Balázs Antal Bacsa (right) / 10.22.2018PhD Students of Political HistoryUniversity of Debrecen Abstract One might perceive the Middle Ages as an era of certain rights and privileges.Social stratification or the[…]

The Origin and Development of the Dragon in Ancient Chinese Mythology

Unlike the Western dragon of Europe that is representative of evil, the many eastern versions of the dragon are powerful spiritual symbol. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 12.07.2018Public HistorianBrewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The Chinese dragon (spelled Long,Loong, or Lung in transliteration), is a Chinese mythical creature that also appears in other East Asian cultures, and thus is also sometimes called the Oriental (or Eastern)[…]

Deifying the First President in ‘The Apotheosis of Washington’

The Apotheosis of Washington by Constantino Brumidi, 1865 / United States Capitol rotunda, Wikimedia Commons The Apotheosis of Washington depicts George Washington sitting amongst the heavens in an exalted manner, or in literal terms, ascending and becoming a god (apotheosis). Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 12.06.2018 Public Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction The Apotheosis of Washington is the fresco painted by Greek-Italian artist[…]