Social, Political, and Environmental Characteristics of Early Civilizations

Complex societies took the forms of larger agricultural villages, cities, city-states, and states, which shared many features. A New Social Order About 12,000 years ago, human communities started to function very differently than in the past. Rather than relying primarily on hunting or gathering food, many societies created systems for producing food. By about 10,000[…]

Civilizational Collapse Has a Bright Past – But a Dark Future

Modern civilizations might also be less capable of recovering from deep collapse than their predecessors. Is the collapse of a civilisation necessarily calamitous? The failure of the Egyptian Old Kingdom towards the end of the 2nd millennium BCE was accompanied by riots, tomb-raids and even cannibalism. ‘The whole of Upper Egypt died of hunger and[…]