Queen Constantinople of the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires

In the Middle Ages, Constantinople was the richest European city and was known as the “Queen of Cities”. Introduction Constantinople (Greek: Κωνσταντινούπολη) was the capital of the Byzantine Empire and, following its fall in 1453, of the Ottoman Empire until 1930, when it was renamed Istanbul as part of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk’s Turkish national reforms.[…]