Sequestration: The Long Consequences of Stealing a Medieval Papal Election

During the sede vacante in 1241, Frederick II blocked the arrival of some cardinal electors known to be hostile to his interests. Introduction The 1241 papal election (21 September to 25 October)[1] saw the election of Cardinal Goffredo da Castiglione as Pope Celestine IV. The election took place during the first of many protracted sede[…]

The Great Occidental Schism: Division in the Catholic Church, 1378-1417

The affair is sometimes referred to as the Great Schism, but this term is typically reserved for the more enduring East–West Schism of 1054. Introduction The Western Schism, also called Papal Schism, Great Occidental Schism and Schism of 1378, was a split within the Catholic Church lasting from 1378 to 1417[1] in which two men[…]

The Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy, 1309-1377

The Papacy in the Late Middle Ages had a major secular role in addition to its spiritual role. Introduction In the history of the Roman Catholic Church, the Avignon Papacy was the period from 1309 to 1377 during which seven popes, all French, resided in Avignon: In 1378, Gregory XI moved the papal residence back[…]