The Gentleman’s Agreement That Ended the Civil War

An unusually civil armistice in the most punishing conflict ever fought on American soil. One hundred and fifty years ago, on April 9, 1865, a lone Confederate horseman violently waving a white towel as a flag of truce galloped up to the men of the 118th Pennsylvania Infantry near Appomattox Court House and asked for[…]

President Ulysses S. Grant and the Court Packing Controversy of 1870

Grant was accused with packing the court, the same charge later leveled against FDR in 1937. Introduction On April 10, 1869, Congress passed an act to amend the judicial system in part by increasing the number of Supreme Court justices to nine, to take effect the first Monday in December of that year. That act,[…]

Ulysses Grant Tried but Failed to Get Citizenship Rights for Native Americans

The president and his Seneca friend Ely Parker wanted Native Americans to gain citizenship, but their efforts are mostly lost to history. The man elected president in 1868—Ulysses S. Grant—was determined to change the way many of his fellow Americans understood citizenship. As he saw it, anyone could become an American, not just people like[…]