The Land of the Nile



Aswan Monuments to the Pharaohs / Photo by: eviljohnius, Creative Commons




The tomb of King Tutankhamun was found almost entirely intact in 1922. This headdress, placed over the mummified head of the deceased king in 1343 B.C.E., is made entirely of gold.

Hieroglyphics, pyramids, mummies, the Sphinx of Giza, King Tut, and Cleopatra.

The sands of the Nile River Valley hold many clues about one of the most mysterious, progressive, and artistic ancient civilizations. A great deal of evidence survives about how the ancient Egyptians lived, but questions remain. Even the wise sphinx would have trouble answering some of them. How were the pyramids built? Who came up with the idea for mummies and why? What was a typical day like for a pharaoh?

In De-Nile

In 3,000 B.C.E., Egypt looked similar geographically to the way it looks today. The country was mostly covered by desert. But along the Nile River was a fertile swath that proved — and still proves — a life source for many Egyptians.


The Nile Valley was the seat of an ancient Egyptian civilization that spanned over 4,000 years.

The Nile is the longest river in the world; it flows northward for nearly 4,200 miles. In ancient times, crops could be grown only along a narrow, 12-mile stretch of land that borders the river. Early Egyptians grew crops such as beans, wheat, and cotton. Despite the lack of many natural resources, such as forests or an abundance of land for farming, a great society emerged.


Egyptians artisans smelted copper and gold for artistic, architectural, and even military purposes.

Earlier in history, Neolithic (late Stone Age) people thrived in the Nile Valley. The remains that have been uncovered date back to about 6,000 B.C.E. But it wasn’t until 3,800 B.C.E. that the valley’s inhabitants began to form a cohesive civilization.

The road to civilization required more organization and increased efficiency. Farmers began producing surplus crops that allowed others not only to concentrate on farming but also to pursue other trades, such as mercantilism or skilled craftwork.


The Book of the Dead was written using special cursive pictograms that link hieroglyphics to the hieratic form used in later Egyptian religious writings.

Egyptian artisans created copper tools such as chisels and needles — all new inventions — which allowed them to fabricate ornamental jewelry. Artisans also discovered how to make bronze by mixing copper and tin, which marked the beginning of the Bronze Age.

Evidence suggests that ancient Egyptians invented the potter’s wheel. This tool made it easier to create pots and jars for storage, cooking, religious needs, and decoration.

Pharaohs and the Legacy of Ancient Egypt

The pharaohs who ruled Egypt for about 3,000 years were by and large capable administrators, strong military leaders, sophisticated traders, and overseers of great building projects.

A Brief Timeline of Ancient Egypt

Foundation to Demise

Ancient Egypt’s great civilization spanned thousands of years, from c. 3000 B.C. until the annexation by Rome in 30 B.C.E.

6000 First inhabitants settle along the Nile Delta.
2900 King Menes unites Upper and Lower Egypt.
2772 365-day calendar is invented.
2750 The Old Kingdom is established with its capital in Memphis.
2560 King Khufu (Cheops) builds the Great Pyramids of Giza.
2181 Instability and corruption weaken the empire.
2050 The Middle Kingdom is established and the capital moves to Thebes.
1750 The Hyksos, a group of Semitic-Asiatics, invade and rule Egypt.
1550 The Hyksos are expelled and the New Kingdom established.
1500 Queen Hatshepsut expands the empire south (Nubia) and east (Palestine).
1380 Amenhotep IV (“Akhenaton”) supports worship of only one god, the sun-disk god Aton.
1336 Tutankhamun (“King Tut”) revives polytheism and returns to the capital to Thebes.
1290 Ramses II (“The Great”) begins a 67-year reign and completes Temple of Luxor.
1283 Egyptians and Hittites sign the first recorded peace treaty.
712 Egypt is invaded from the south by the Nubian Empire, which starts an “Ethiopian Dynasty.”
670 Assyrians conquer Egypt.
525 The Persian Empire conquers Egypt.
343 Nectanebo II, the last Egyptian-born pharaoh, dies.
332 Alexander the Great of Macedonia invades Egypt.
331 The city of Alexandria is established and the Macedonian general Ptolemy begins new dynasty.
51 The Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII rules Egypt, assisted by Julius Caesar.
30 Cleopatra commits suicide, and Egypt is annexed by the Roman Empire.

Writing also set the Egyptians apart from some of their neighbors. Egyptians used hieroglyphics or pictures to represent words or sounds. This early form of writing was discovered by the Western world after Napoleon’s army invaded Egypt in 1798. The Rosetta Stone, a black tablet containing inscriptions, was deciphered and became crucial in unlocking the mystery of hieroglyphics and understanding Egyptian history.

Ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for several thousand years. Many of its discoveries and practices have survived an even greater test of time.

In fact, one of the ancient Egyptians’ inventions, the calendar, has helped define time itself.

Live Along the Nile


The ancient Egyptian writing system, hieroglyphics, was advanced by 3100 B.C.E. The complex system included numbers and an alphabet as well as other symbols.

None of the achievements of the remarkable ancient Egyptian civilization would have been possible without the Nile River. There is always a connection between landscape and how a people develop. It does not take the wisdom of a sphinx to understand why.

Archaeologists and historians don’t know exactly how Egyptian civilization evolved. It is believed that humans started living along the Nile’s banks starting in about 6,000 B.C.E. For the earliest inhabitants of the Nile Valley food was not easy to find. There were no McTut’s selling burgers, and, though there were a lot of crocodiles, those critters were pretty hard to catch.

Food for Thought

Over time, however, despite being in the midst of desert surroundings, people discovered that the Nile River provided many sources of food. Along the river were fruit trees, and fish swam in the Nile in great numbers.


The Nile — the longest river in the world at 4,187 miles — defines Egypt’s landscape and culture. A common Egyptian blessing is “May you always drink from the Nile.”

Perhaps most importantly, they discovered that, at the same time each year, the Nile flooded for about six months. As the river receded, it deposited a rich, brown layer of silt that was suitable for growing wheat, beans, barley, or even cotton. Farmers learned to dig short canals leading to fields near the Nile, thus providing fresh water for year-round irrigation. Planting immediately after a flood yielded harvests before the next year’s flood.

Prime Time

In order to know when to plant, the Egyptians needed to track days. They developed a calendar based on the flooding of the Nile that proved remarkably accurate. It contained a year of 365 days divided into 12 months of 30 days each. The five extra days fell at the end of the year.

Here’s a problem that the sphinx might have trouble answering: how did the ancient Egyptians make their calendars? What material did they use? Remember, there was no paper. Need a clue? Take a dip in the Nile.

Large reeds called papyrus grew wild along the Nile. The Egyptians developed a process that turned these reeds into flattened material that could be written on (also called papyrus). In fact, the English word “paper” has its root in the ancient Greek word “papyrus.” Among the first things written on papyrus were calendars that tracked time.

Papyrus had many other uses. Boats were constructed by binding the reeds together in bundles. Baskets, mats, rope, and sandals were also fashioned from this multipurpose material.

Sand, Land, and Civilization


The Sahara, the world’s largest desert, encroaches on the western shore of the Nile River. Other deserts lie to the Nile’s east. Egypt’s location within the world’s driest region helped protect it from invaders throughout the centuries.

Even today, the world around the Nile is quite barren. Outside of the narrow swath of greenery next to the river, there is sand as far as the eye can see. To the Nile’s west exists the giant Sahara Desert, the largest desert in the world.

From north to south, the Sahara is between 800 and 1,200 miles wide; it stretches over 3,000 miles from east to west. The total area of the Sahara is more than 3,500,000 square miles. It’s the world’s biggest sandbox.

And, as if there weren’t enough sand in the Sahara, east of the Nile are other deserts.

Although sand had limited uses, these deserts presented one tremendous strategic advantage: few invaders could ever cross the sands to attack Egypt — the deserts proved too great a natural barrier.

After learning to take advantage of the Nile’s floods — and not having to fear foreign attacks — the Egyptians concentrated on improving farming techniques. As the years passed, Egyptians discovered that wheat could be baked into bread, that barley could be turned into soup (or even beer), and that cotton could be spun into clothing.

With many of life’s necessities provided, the Egyptians started thinking about other things, such as art, government, religion, and philosophy — some of the basics needed to create a civilization. Eventually, pyramids, mummies, Cleopatra, and the Sphinx of Giza became touchstones of this flourishing culture.

Egyptian Social Structure

Egyptian society was structured like a pyramid. At the top were the gods, such as Ra, Osiris, and Isis. Egyptians believed that the gods controlled the universe. Therefore, it was important to keep them happy. They could make the Nile overflow, cause famine, or even bring death.


In the social pyramid of ancient Egypt the pharaoh and those associated with divinity were at the top, and servants and slaves made up the bottom.

The Egyptians also elevated some human beings to gods. Their leaders, called pharaohs, were believed to be gods in human form. They had absolute power over their subjects. After pharaohs died, huge stone pyramids were built as their tombs. Pharaohs were buried in chambers within the pyramids.

Because the people of Egypt believed that their pharaohs were gods, they entrusted their rulers with many responsibilities. Protection was at the top of the list. The pharaoh directed the army in case of a foreign threat or an internal conflict. All laws were enacted at the discretion of the pharaoh. Each farmer paid taxes in the form of grain, which were stored in the pharaoh’s warehouses. This grain was used to feed the people in the event of a famine.

The Chain of Command


Ancient Egyptian royalty, nobility, and clergy enjoyed lives of wealth and comfort while farmers and slaves struggled to subsist.

No single person could manage all these duties without assistance. The pharaoh appointed a chief minister called a vizier as a supervisor. The vizier ensured that taxes were collected.

Working with the vizier were scribes who kept government records. These high-level employees had mastered a rare skill in ancient Egypt — they could read and write.

Noble Aims

Right below the pharaoh in status were powerful nobles and priests. Only nobles could hold government posts; in these positions they profited from tributes paid to the pharaoh. Priests were responsible for pleasing the gods.


Religion was a central theme in ancient Egyptian culture and each town had its own deity. Initially, these deities were animals; later, they took on human appearances and behaviors. Seated here is Thoth, the god of learning and wisdom, carrying a scepter symbolizing magical power.

Nobles enjoyed great status and also grew wealthy from donations to the gods. All Egyptians — from pharaohs to farmers — gave gifts to the gods.

Soldier On

Soldiers fought in wars or quelled domestic uprisings. During long periods of peace, soldiers also supervised the peasants, farmers, and slaves who were involved in building such structures as pyramids and palaces.

Skilled workers such as physicians and craftspersons made up the middle class. Craftspersons made and sold jewelry, pottery, papyrus products, tools, and other useful things.

Naturally, there were people needed to buy goods from artisans and traders. These were the merchants and storekeepers who sold these goods to the public.

The Bottom of the Heap

At the bottom of the social structure were slaves and farmers. Slavery became the fate of those captured as prisoners of war. In addition to being forced to work on building projects, slaves toiled at the discretion of the pharaoh or nobles.

Farmers tended the fields, raised animals, kept canals and reservoirs in good order, worked in the stone quarries, and built the royal monuments. Farmers paid taxes that could be as much as 60 percent of their yearly harvest — that’s a lot of hay!

Social mobility was not impossible. A small number of peasants and farmers moved up the economic ladder. Families saved money to send their sons to village schools to learn trades. These schools were run by priests or by artisans. Boys who learned to read and write could become scribes, then go on to gain employment in the government. It was possible for a boy born on a farm to work his way up into the higher ranks of the government. Bureaucracy proved lucrative.



Ancient Egyptian cities which flourished during the Dynastic periods were located close to the Nile River, the life source of the region.

What’s a dynasty?

It’s a powerful group or family that maintains its position for a number of years. The New York Yankees baseball team of the 1920s is considered a dynasty because they went to the World Series almost every year and had great leaders, such as Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig.

Ancient Egypt, also had dynasties. They were families who often ruled for a considerable number of years and did impressive things — such as building pyramids — during their rule.

The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three main periods: the Old Kingdom (about 2,700-2,200 B.C.E.), the Middle Kingdom (2,050-1,800 B.C.E.), and the New Kingdom (about 1,550-1,100 B.C.E.). The New Kingdom was followed by a period called the Late New Kingdom, which lasted to about 343 B.C.E. (Intermediate kingdoms — those without strong ruling families — filled the gaps of time in between the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms.)

During these periods, power passed from one dynasty to another. A dynasty ruled until it was overthrown or there were no heirs left to rule. Each kingdom ended in turmoil either after a period of infighting or after being invaded.

There were more than 30 dynasties in Egyptian history. Dynasties helped keep Egypt united, which was no easy task. Leaders faced periods of chaos, ambitious rivals, and also foreigners who wanted to conquer the region.

The Earliest Dynasties


All pharaohs wore beards — even female rulers, as shown by this bust of Hatshepsut.

Beginning in about 4,000 B.C.E., all of Egyptian society existed in two kingdoms, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. Around 3,100 B.C.E., Menes, the king of Upper Egypt, started the long string of dynasties by conquering Lower Egypt. He unified the regions and built his capital city at Memphis, near the border of these two kingdoms. Because Memphis was located on an island in the Nile, it was easy to defend.

So began the first dynasty, an age appropriately called the Early Dynastic Period. Little is known of the pharaohs (rulers) of the early dynasties. The Egyptian word “pharaoh” literally means “great house.”

Pharaohs were more than just rulers. They were considered gods and were believed to possess the secrets of heaven and earth. Pharaohs led the government and the army and wielded unlimited power.


The step pyramid of Netjerikhet in Saqqara (left) believed to have been the first pyramid constructed in Egypt, was completed in the 27th century B.C.E. during the Third Dynasty. Pyramid building progressed through the dynasties, culminating in the Pyramids of Giza (right).

The Old Kingdom


Amenemhat III was one of the great rulers of the Middle Kingdom. During his time as pharaoh, the Pyramid of Hawara was built. / Photo courtesy of State Hermitage Museum

About 300 years after Menes united Egypt, its rulers formed a central government in which they held supreme power. This was the beginning of the Old Kingdom. (Kings tend to rule from a central place, which is why the early dynastic period is not considered a kingdom.)  During the Old Kingdom, pyramid building flourished. Cheops had the six-million-ton Great Pyramid of Giza constructed as his tomb. Under Chephren, a Fourth Dynasty ruler, the Great Sphinx was built.

The end of the Old Kingdom was marked by civil wars between pharaohs and nobles.

The Middle Kingdom

Montuhotep II (2,007-1,956 B.C.E.), an Eleventh dynasty pharaoh, was the last ruler of the Old Kingdom and the first ruler of the Middle Kingdom. He and his successors restored political order.

The Middle Kingdom is remembered as a time of flourishing arts, particularly in jewelry making. Egypt became a great trading power during this period and continued massive construction projects. Eventually, the long reign of prosperity gave way to old problems: crop failures, economic woes, dynastic power struggles, and foreign invaders.

Amenemhet III (1817-1772 B.C.E.), of the Twelfth Dynasty, was responsible for the construction of two great projects. He completed the building of the giant waterwheels of the Faiyum region that diverted the floodwaters of the Nile. Amenemhet also constructed the Pyramid of Hawara, which became known as the Labyrinth. It contained about 3,000 rooms.

Trouble struck when a group of foreigners, the Hyksos, a Semitic-Asiatic group, invaded the Nile Delta region. These advanced warriors used new tools for war: bronze weapons and horse-drawn chariots. They defeated the Egyptians, who fought on foot with copper-and-stone weapons.

The New Kingdom

Early pharaohs of the New Kingdom evicted the Hyksos. The New Kingdom is remembered as a time of renaissance in artistic creation, but also as the end of dynastic rule. This period was also marred by corrupt priests and tomb-robbing by government officials.


Tutankhamun may be the most famous of Egypt’s pharaohs because of the discovery of his untouched tomb in 1922. The tombs of more prominent pharaohs had been pillaged, but Tut’s resting place and its golden treasures had escaped the hands of looters.

A famed pharaoh of the new period was Amenhotep IV, who triggered a religious revolution. Before Amenhotep’s rule, Egypt was a polytheistic society that believed in many gods, the most important named Amon. But, Amenhotep believed only in Aton, the sun god. Belief in only one god (monotheism) was a radical notion. To show his devotion to Aton, the pharaoh changed his name to Akenhaton (“he who is loyal to Aton”). Akenhaton moved his capital from Thebes, where Amon was worshipped, to Tell el Amarna.

Naturally, the priests who represented the other gods did not like this change one bit. Many Egyptians also did not like the pharaoh discrediting their gods. After the death of Akenhaton, the powerful priests forced the new capital to be moved back to Thebes .


The pharaoh who moved the capital back to Thebes was a boy-king. He ruled for nine years, attempted to pacify the priests, and was responsible for some modest building projects. He began his reign at the age of 10 but died of a head injury at 19.

But, his name is famous: Tutankhamun, or more familiarly, King Tut. Tut is mostly remembered because of his beautiful tomb — one of the very few that was not pillaged by grave robbers.

Ramses II, or Ramses the Great, was another important ruler during this period. He reigned for 67 years and died in about 1,213 B.C.E. at age 96. His nearly 200 wives and concubines bore 96 sons and 60 daughters. Not only did Ramesses build a great family, he also built two temples at Abu Simbel, a covered hall of giant pillars at Karnak, additions at the Luxor Temple, and the Ramesseum, a compound consisting of two temples and a palace.

After Ramses’ rule, Egypt fell into steady decline. Today, his 3,000-year-old mummy lies in a display case on the second floor of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Egypt’s capital.

Over the course of the next nine centuries, the Nubians, the Assyrians, and the Persians bounded into Egypt and ravaged the area. When Pharaoh Nectanebo II retreated to Memphis to avoid death at the hands of oncoming Persian invaders in 343 B.C.E., he became the last Egyptian-born pharaoh, ending over 2,500 years of Egyptian self-rule.



Legend claims that Osiris taught agriculture to the ancient Egyptians. After being murdered by his brother Seth, Osiris became even more influential as ruler over both the dead and the underworld.

A dead noble stands trembling in the Hall of Truth. Behind the noble, Horus, the half-falcon, half-man ruler of Earth, unleashes a piercing stare at the quivering man. Thoth, the sharp-beaked, ibis-headed deity of scribes, sharpens his quill — poised to record a verdict of divine judgment.


Do not try this at home. From purification to dehydration — nine quick steps to mummification. And don’t forget to discard the brains.

Seated before the noble on a golden throne is Osiris, the king of the dead. Upon his head rests a glittering crown with a gorgeous white feather plume on either side. Behind Osiris stands Isis, the revered goddess of nature, who is responsible for bringing the dead earth back to life each year. She holds an ankh, a cross with a loop above the bar. An ankh guarantees that a dead person will live forever.

The noble wonders if he will live forever. Or will he be fed to the hideous crocodilelike god called the Eater of the Dead and forever cease to exist. (How can the noble wonder about all this if he’s already dead? The noble is actually in limbo, a place where the souls of dead people go while being judged.)

Osiris begins the process of judging the noble’s life. On one side of a scale, Osiris places the heart of the noble, which bares the secrets of the soul. Had the soul lied, cheated, or lived an evil life? The soul defends itself before a variety of interrogating gods.


Thought to be the oldest surviving medical text (1600 B.C.E.), the Edwin Smith Papyrus explains the treatment of wounds in Egyptian medicine. What important organ does this hieroglyphic spell out?

The noble thinks about his second self, called the ka. The ka lives within every human being. When the physical body expires, the ka goes on to enjoy eternal life, where it can hunt, fish, live with its family, be entertained, and eat favorite foods.

Now Osiris holds up the sacred feather, the emblem of truth, and places it on the other side of the scale. If the scales balance, eternal life awaits. If not, the Eater of the Dead has his favorite food for lunch: noble.


My heart, my mother! My heart whereby I came into being! May nought stand up to oppose me at [my] judgment, may there be no opposition to me in the presence of the Chiefs; may there be no parting of thee from me in the presence of him that keepeth the Balance! Thou art my ka, which dwelleth in my body; the god Khnemu who knitteth together and strengtheneth my limbs. Mayest thou come forth into the place of happiness whither we go. May the Sheniu officials, who make the conditions of the lives of men, not cause my name to stink, and may no lies be spoken against me in the presence of the God.

-“Prayer of Ani,” from the Book of the Dead (c. 1,700 B.C.E.)


The Egyptian Pantheon

Alternate names are in (parentheses). Some of the duties and animals of the Egyptian gods overlapped. The gods listed below were most popular during the Age of the Pyramids.

Name of god or goddess Symbol Role or Purpose
Amun “the hidden one” god of the atmosphere, sun, sky, and empire
Anti (Anty) hawk, falcon guardian of the living
Anubis jackal, dog guardian of the dead, mummification
Atum “the complete one,” setting sun creator of the universe
Babi baboon demon god of the underworld
Bastet cat goddess of the home
Bat (Bata) buffalo, cow ancient goddess of kingship, became Hathor
Geb (Keb, Seb) goose god of the Earth
Hapi (Hapy) large bearded human with a crown of plants god of the Nile flood, abundance, fertility
Hathor cow goddess of love, music, song, and dance
Heket (Heqet) frog goddess of childbirth, fertility
Heh kneeling man holding two palm ribs god of eternity, longevity
Horus (Har, Hor) falcon warrior-king of the gods
Isis (Aset, Eset) Sirius, the brightest star in the sky goddess of resurrection, announcer of the flood
Khnum (Khnemu) ram creator of the Nile flood, builder of the Great Pyramid
Maat (Ma’at, Mayet) female wearing an ostrich feather goddess of truth, justice, order, and balance
Min (Minu, Menu) white bull god of fertility, protector of the eastern mines
Neith (Neit) two crossed arrows behind a shield goddess of northern Egypt, hunting, warfare
Nekhbet (Nekhebet, Nechbet) vulture goddess of Upper Egypt, protector of the king
Nephthys royal palace, kite goddess of the dead
Nut (Neuth, Nuit) sky mother-goddess
Osiris (Usire) man wrapped in the linens of mummification god of the dead, underworld, agriculture
Ptah bull ancient creator-god of Memphis, patron of craftsmen and artisans
Re (Ra) sun king of the gods
Renenutet (Ernutet, Renenet) cobra mother-goddess, witness at births
Sakhmet (Sachmet) “the powerful one,” lioness goddess of war, protector of the people
Seth (Set, Setekh, Setesh, Seti, Sutekh, Setech, Sutech) oryx, boar, crocodile, hippopotamus god of the desert, chaos, and storm
Shu (Su) male wearing an ostrich feather god of air and light
Sobek (Sebek, Sebeq, Sebk, Sabk) crocodile god of kingship, decisive action, and violence
Sokar (Seker) hawk patron of the Memphis royal cemetery
Tefnut (Tefnet, Tefenet) lioness goddess of moisture, dew, rain, and mist
Thoth (Thot, Thout, Tehuti, Djhowtey, Djehuti, Zehuti) ibis, baboon god of scribes, writing, justice, truth, wisdom, knowledge, and the moon
Wadjet (Uto) snake one of the king’s protector goddesses


Before being judged by Osiris, the noble’s soul had undertaken a journey that lasted over two months. When the noble died he was brought to the Beautiful House, where an embalmer (often a priest with knowledge of rituals, wrapping, and anatomy) prepared the body to cross to the afterlife.

Egyptians believed that the afterlife would be much like life on Earth and that the soul would want use of its body in eternity. That’s why Egyptians made an art out of mummification, or the preservation of the dead.

The process of embalming took great skill and required many steps. What follows is a crash course on Egyptian embalming technique.


This is an example of an Egyptian coffin made of wood, painted, then gilded. Created during the Ptolemaic Period (305-30 B.C.E.), the lid is adorned with images from the Book of the Dead, a text believed to lead the dead into the lands of Osiris, the god of the underworld.

  1. Removal of the Brain
    With long hooks, the brain is extracted through the nasal passage. The Egyptians didn’t think that the brain had any special use.
  2. Organ Removal (Evisceration)
    A cut is made on the left side of the body, and the liver, lungs, and other organs are removed, dried out, and stored in sacred vessels called canopic jars. The heart is left in the body, because it will be needed to be weighed in judgment by Osiris.
  3. Dehydration with Natron Crystals
    Now the body must be dehydrated (have the liquids removed) to stop decay. A type of salt called natron is used. Natron crystals are packed around the body. The crystals absorb body fat and fluids and keep the body from decaying. After being treated for about 40 days, the corpse is washed and dried.
  4. Stuffing
    Because the body has lost much of its mass, resin-stained clothes or bits of sawdust are used to pack the corpse, which by now has also lost its eyeballs. Pieces of cloth are stuffed in the eye sockets and painted black. At this point, the corpse’s lips and cheeks are painted.
  5. Oiling the Body
    This elaborate process includes, massaging, perfuming, and anointing (blessing with oil) the corpse.
  6. Coloring
    After the nose and mouth are filled with cloth scraps to restore the shape of the face, the body is colored. Men are colored red; women are colored yellow. After the coloring, resin is poured into body cavities.
  7. Arrangement of the Body
    Depending on which period of Egyptian history the deceased lived in, the arms are either placed to the side of the corpse, folded on its chest, or placed with hands on shoulders.
  8. Wrapping
    The body is wrapped in several layers of fine linen; and various body parts receive particular attention. This process takes two weeks, after which a resin is added to the bandages.
  9. Funerary Mask
    A mask, sometimes made entirely of gold, is fitted to the mummy’s body. Symbols of gods often adorned masks.
  10. Burial of Waste
    All materials used to prepare the corpse (such as natron and bloody linen) are placed in a jar and buried away from the mummy’s tomb.


Meet Mumab, the first mummy created in nearly 2,000 years using the ancient Egyptian formula. Before his mummification, Mumab lived in Baltimore, Maryland. / © 1996 Deurer — used with permission

Finally, the time has come to entomb the mummy. Jewelry, games, furniture, food, clothing, and cosmetics might be entombed with the corpse. These things would be used in the afterlife. The Book of the Dead, a collection of hymns and prayers, might also be included in the tomb to protect the body on its journey to the realm of the dead.

So how did the noble fare before the great Osiris? Ask his mummy.



Built in 30 years, the Pyramid at Giza was the tallest building in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. It remains as the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

For centuries, they were the tallest structures on the planet. The Pyramids of Giza, built over 4,000 years ago, still stand atop an otherwise flat, sandy landscape.

One of the Seven Wonders of the World, the pyramids defy 21st-century humans to explain their greatest secrets. How could a civilization that lacked bulldozers, forklifts, and trucks build such massive structures? Why would anyone have spent the time and energy to attempt such a task? What treasures were placed inside these monuments?


Accompanying the Pyramids of Giza is, the Sphinx, a gigantic figure of a lion with the head of a pharaoh.

Only a powerful pharaoh could marshal the necessary human resources to build giant pyramids. During the flood seasons, farmers became builders. Huge stone blocks averaging over two tons in weight were mined in quarries and transported to the pyramid site.

Egyptologists theorize that the workers used either rollers or slippery clay to drag the blocks from the quarries to their eventual placement on the pyramid. Construction of the larger pyramids took decades.

Why Pyramids?

Pyramids were built for religious purposes. The Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to believe in an afterlife. They believed that a second self called the ka lived within every human being. When the physical body expired, the ka enjoyed eternal life. Those fortunate enough to pass the test of Osiris wanted to be comfortable in their lives beyond earth. The Great Pyramids were simply grand tombs of powerful pharaohs.

Three pyramids were built at Giza, and many smaller pyramids were constructed around the Nile Valley. The tallest of the Great Pyramids reaches nearly 500 feet into the sky and spans an area greater than 13 acres. The Great Sphinx was sculpted nearby to stand watch over the pyramids. It stands 65 feet tall and consists of a human head atop the body of a lion.

Many believe that the Sphinx was a portrait of King Chefren (Khafret), who was placed in the middle Pyramid. The lion symbolized immortality.

You Can Take It with You

Egyptians who ranked high in status often wanted to take their most prized possessions with them in death, so the ka could enjoy them in its next life. Gold, silver, and bronze artifacts were loaded into the interiors of the great tombs. Fine linens and artwork adorned the secret chambers.

In the early days, dead nobles were often interned with their living slaves and animals. Because this practice eventually proved too costly, artists instead depicted scenes of human activity on the inside walls. Some pyramids were even equipped with a rest room for the pharaoh.


Inside pyramids such as this one for King Pepi I, passageways lead to a main burial chamber. Designs varied for each pyramid.

Great precautions were taken to protect the tombs from looters. Egyptians believed that a defiler of a pharaoh’s resting place would be cursed for eternity. The entrance to the inner chambers was carefully hidden. The pharaoh’s mummy was placed in a huge coffin called a sarcophagus, which was made of the hardest known stone blocks. But despite such warnings and precautions, tombs were raided over the years by grave robbers.

The pyramids, however, have stood the test of time. Although their outer limestone layers have long since been stripped or passed into dust, the pyramids still stand. About 80 dot the horizons of modern Egypt. They remain as time capsules cast forward by a once-great civilization.

Women of Ancient Egypt


The actress Elizabeth Taylor portrayed Cleopatra in the 1963 Hollywood movie named after the famous Egyptian queen.

Women in ancient Egypt were ahead of their time. They could not only rule the country, but also had many of the same basic human rights as men.

One of the first women to hold the rank of pharaoh was Hatshepsut, who began her rule in about 1,500 B.C.E. Hatshepsut took care of her people and built temples to the gods as well as other public buildings. Egyptian custom dictated that a pharaoh, who was considered a god, could not marry a mortal. As a result, pharaohs chose spouses from within the royal family. Her husband, Thutmose, was her half brother.

Nefertiti was another Egyptian ruler. She married Amenhotep IV, who preached and supported monotheism, or the belief in only one god.


Found in the chapel of Merya at Armana, this drawing depicts Queen Nefertiti accompanying her husband, the pharaoh Akhenaton, from the royal palace to the temple. Because of exceptionally high status, Nefertiti rode in her own chariot.


The bust of Nefertiti, the Queen of Egypt, is legendary for its beautiful and mysterious depiction of the queen during the Amarna period. This portrait was sculpted in the workshop of Thutmose in Akhet-Aton.


The Egyptian goddess Isis was one of the most important deities of the ancient world. Originally the goddess of motherhood and fertility, Isis became the mother of all gods and was worshipped throughout Egypt until the 6th century C.E.

Cleopatra became the most famous of Egypt’s female leaders. She was extremely intelligent, and ambitious and spoke several languages — she even studied astronomy. At 18, she became queen of Egypt.

Romance and Tragedy in Cleopatra’s Court

Cleopatra constantly battled jealous, ambitious people who wanted to kill her and occupy her throne. For a time, she was removed from power and banished. She sought help from Julius Caesar, the leader of the powerful Roman Republic.

When Caesar visited Alexandria, a large Egyptian city, Cleopatra saw her chance. She could not even enter the city to see Caesar because her jealous brother hired spies to kill her on sight. Craftily, she sneaked into the city rolled in a carpet. She was brought to Caesar, and the two developed a relationship. The couple had a son named Caesarion, and Caesar helped her recapture the throne. The relationship ended abruptly when rival Roman rulers murdered Caesar in the Roman Senate.

I’m Dying to See You

When Marc Antony became leader of Rome, he too, fell in love with Cleopatra. The two had children and together ruled the most powerful empires of the Mediterranean. Eventually, a rival defeated Antony’s armies, and Antony drew a sword on himself in despair. As he was dying, he wanted to see Cleopatra one last time. He died in her arms. Later, Cleopatra killed herself by placing a poisonous snake on her chest. The greatest political soap opera of the age was now over.

The Rights Stuff

These were examples of elite Egyptian women. But what about the common folk? A woman’s role as mother and wife still came first in Egyptian society. Some professions in which women worked included weaving, perfume making, and entertainment.

Egyptian women could have their own businesses, own and sell property, and serve as witnesses in court cases. Unlike most women in the Middle East, they were even permitted to be in the company of men. They could escape bad marriages by divorcing and remarrying. And women were entitled to one third of the property their husbands owned. The political and economic rights Egyptian women enjoyed made them the most liberated females of their time.