Athens in the 19th century: The Neighbourhood of Metaxourgeion

Section of F. Aldenhoven’s map of Athens in 1837; marked are the four abandoned building plots on Millerou street, the road intersection at the Dipylon and the fortification wall of Haseki.

By Dr. Christina Agriantoni
Professor of Modern History
University of Thessaly

This is a discussion[1] of the mechanisms that command the evolution of a neighbourhood of Athens, named “Metaxourgeion”, focusing on the dialectical relationship between a large building and its environs, as well as on the articulation of individual/conjunctural actions and structural trends.

The large building, in our case, is the silkmill (“metaxourgeion”) of the “Silk company of Athens Athanassios Douroutis & Co”, after which the neighbourhood was named. This area lay outside the historic city of Athens , but in direct propinquity to it. It was a rural area, with orchards and fields, and had two additional features, which somehow predisposed the area to a certain type of development. Firstly, to the south of it lay the area of the Dipylon (nowadays the archaeological site of Keramikos), with an important junction where the roads from Eleusis (Iera Odos), Piraeus (branch of the main road to Piraeus, which terminated further south, at the “Dragon Gate”), and Sepolia converged.[2] From this crossroads[3] that can be clearly seen on Aldenhoven’s 1837 map (fig. 1), a central road led to the Moria-Gate of Haseki’s fortification wall. Secondly, right beside the Moria-Gate (on present-day Sarri street), “gypsy blacksmiths’ had settled, for which reason it was also called “Gypsy-Gate”.[4] Consequently, transport-communication functions and industry were already present in the vicinity of our area, named at that time “Chezolitharo”, before Athens became capital of the state.

The earliest depiction (1835) of the commercial centre, under construction, and the Cantacuzenos residence (From: Fr. Stademann, Panorama von Athen).

When Athens was declared capital and the area was included in the plans of the new city, prospects opened of its urbanization.[5] At that moment, the possible directions its development could take were naturally many. A temporary decision charted the first direction, and this was the initial plans of Kleanthis-Schaubert and Klenze for building the king’s palace in the nearby areas of Omonoia and Dipylon respectively. The prospect of becoming a central urban area mobilized purchases of land in the area and attracted the significant investment of Prince George Cantacuzenos in a large urban property that would operate as a shopping centre. At the same time, other wealthy immigrants began to build their large residences.[6] (fig. 2).

But this temporary decision was changed, and the final decision in 1836 to locate the palace at the opposite edge of the city, upset the balance of social evaluation and “froze” developments at Chezolitharo, whose orientations once again became vague.  The Cantacuzenos complex remained unfinished, since there was no more interest in building a shopping centre in this area, now off-centre.[7] And indeed, demand for urban land turned towards the northern and northeastern suburban zones, which were the first to be built.[8] Nevertheless, the houses which had already gone up or were finished a little later, even though most of them had been abandoned by their original (wealthy) owners, kept open for a while the prospect of the area’s designation as a residential zone.[9] This prospect remained open for about twenty years, and the last living witness of it is the Provelengios residence, still standing at the corner of Kerameikou and Milerrou street.

From a French map of 1854 (fig. 3) it is evident that over the twenty-year interval land occupation in the area had remained at the level of 1837. Both maps show four occupied plots, while in 1854, as can be clearly seen, the orchard of the silkmill had been added. It is also evident on the map, that Millerou street constituted the first pole of settlement in the area, because the new layout at this point followed the earlier road axis.

Section of a French map of Athens in 1853-1854 (Dépôt de la Guerre). Marked are the four abandoned building plots and the orchard of the silkmill on Millerou (then Kerameikou) street, the old road to Sepolia and the road intersection at the Dipylon (From: L. & R. Matton, Athènes et ses monuments du XVIIe s. à nos jours, Athens 1963).

So when “Wrampe & Co” decided to buy the complex and turn it into a silkmill (1852), the area had not yet been incorporated in the urban web. Obviously, the company chose the specific building because no buildings of analogous size, that were suitable for industrial uses, existed in Athens at this time. Moreover, the intended new use did not conflict with the still unformed character of the area, one with rather poor prospects on the outskirts of the city.

This second (conjunctural) intervention was to have a long-term impact on the area’s future, an impact of much greater longevity that the silkmill itself, since in reality it concurred with the long-tem trends that had already been inscribed in the city’s structure. These trends were reinforced by the establishment of the silkmill: they involved the area’s incorporation in the industrial zone of the capital and the crystallization of the city’s basic dichotomy –maintained to this day- between the high-standard bourgeois residential zones in the east and the popular neighbourhoods with housing and workplaces to the west.

Photograph of the western part of Athens in 1869; to the left the Theseum and in the background the silkmill, outside the city and behind the Provelengios residence (From: L. & R. Matton, Athènes et ses monuments du XVIIe s. à nos jours, Athens 1963, photograph by Rumine, Paris).

The pace of this development was slow at first, but accelerated, together with the more general pace of urbanization, during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. In the first phase, the silkmill itself, which developed into a factory complex of diverse uses, stemmed the westward extension of the residential zone. In the early 1860s it was still outside the city; it constituted a marginal point of settlement on the 1862 map (fig. 5), which shows that building had just begun to extend to the west of Omonoia Square. Even in 1875 (fig. 6), when this part had been incorporated fully in the urban web, the silkmill complex with its orchard forms a kind of barrier, a limit on the west side.

Section of a map of Athens in 1862, by the German officer C. von Stranz. The Omonoia area is already built up. The plot of the silkmill is shown here united with the adjacent one to the southeast. At the corner of Millerou and Piraeus streets, the building of the the Chatzikostas Orphanage and, further south, on Piraeus strret, the gasworks (Gazi).

During the interval that separates the two maps, of 1854 and 1862, two further events contributed decisively to crystallizing the area’s character. The first was the installation there of the Chatzikostas Orphanage in 1856, originally in the rented N. Kyklos residence (presumably abandoned) on Kerameikou street, and subsequently in the Vranis residence, which was conceded to it, at the corner of Millerou and Piraeus streets.[10] Following the philanthropists’ strategy for the “social integration of the poor children”[11] the Orphanage set up workshops in which its inmates could learn a trade: at first tailoring and shoe-making, and later blacksmithing. The forge developed into a factory which was let to a businessmans and employed 50 workers in 1884.[12] The second event was the installation of the gasworks, in 1859-1861, on the south side of the road junction mentioned above. The Gazi, as it became known, was the first step in transforming the Athens-Piraeus road into the major industrial axis it still was until recently.

This complex, the axis of Millerou street with the silkmill and the Orphanage workshops on the one hand, and the gasworks on the other, constituted the first pole of attraction for the industrial activities on the west side of Athens. These were directed there through the process of successive lateral shifts that typifies the mobility and adaptability of land uses in the city. These actitivies were asphyxiating in their historic hearth which occupied the same site for centuries, since the Bazaar of the Ottoman era was established on the remains of the Roman agora and Hadrian’s Library.[13] During the Ottoman era the shops and workshops of Athens developed in a south-north direction along the axis of present-day Panos street and radially along the vertical axes of Iphaistou, Pandrosou, and Adrianou streets. Iphaistou street in particular, extending (via Astingos and Leokoriou streets) as far as the Moria-Gate, was the focus of forges and saddlers, while on the east side of Pandrosou street were textile workshops (ambatzidika). So since the Ottoman period, the structure of the city was already characterized by a segregation of activities into “polite” and “polluting”, the latter located in its western sector.[14]

When the streets Ermou, Aiolou, and Athinas were opened, the industrial zone was reconctituted upon these new axes. It should be noted here that, contrary to familiar stereotypes concerning its “parasitic” character, Athens was and remained an industrious city: but even in the industrial period it remained a city of small shops producing a wide range of consumer goods (from necessities to luxuries). Shops and workshops now developed mainly from east to west, with Ermou street as the central axis, eventually occupying the entire area between Monastiraki and the western edge of Adrianou street, the neighbourhood of Psyrri and the triangle bounded by Ermou – Athinas – Evripidou streets (today’s shopping centre), maintaining local enclaves of specialization.

But the expansion of the industrial zone northwards and eastwards was prevented by the “good” areas of Omonoia and Syntagma respectively. The eastern part of Ermou street hosted the best shops and coffee shops, terminating at the hotels, patisseries and mansions in Syntagma square. To the north, the Boukoura Theatre (1840), the Varvakeion High School (1857) and the head office of the National Bank delimited the ambit of Omonoia square.[15]

Consequently the west side of the city was the only possible outlet for the industrial zone. On this side, where, as we have seen, the more important workshops were located, the old communication node was widening its scope. Aghion Asomaton square was now the terminus for carriages and all kinds of land transport arriving with ever increasing frequency from Piraeus; the installation of the railway station here in 1869 further burdened the node with the activities of loading and unloading. The entire area from Aghiou Philippou square, the pitch of the Maltese porters, to the outskirts of Eleftherias (Koumoundourou) square, was filled with facilities serving transport needs: the older pack-saddle-makers, fodder-chandlers etc. and the newer carriage-makers’, carpenters’ and metal workshops.

It was these carriage-makers’ workshops that pioneered the expansion of the industrial zone to the west. Thew first to migrate to the west of Piraeus street, to open up next to the silkmill, was the “Greek carriage-shop of Mr Galliani”,[16] the existence of which is attested from at least 1862. Three years later, in 1865, the newly-crowned George I visited to Dourouti silkmill and the carriage-shop “lying adjacent to it”, and awarded a medal to both owners.[17] Ten years later, in 1875, most of the carriage makers (14 of the 15 recorded in a guide to Athens) were still crowded in Adrianou street, Asomaton square and Sarri street, while in the immediate vicinity of the silkmill a workshop for iron structures is recorded.[18] In the meanwhile, a section of the silkmill itself, now in decline, was let to an independent businessman.

In 1875 the silkmill finally closed and its area was once more at a crossroads. However, ther was now a pressing and mass demand for housing; The capital had entered the orbit of rapid expansion and its population soared: from 44.250 inhabitants in 1870, it reached 63.374 in 1879 (increase of 42%) and 107.251 in 1889 (increase of 69%). So within the decade 1875-1885 the entire area, as far as the outskirts of the gasworks to the south and Kyklovoros stream to the west, was settled and incorporated in the city. Its identity as a low-class area, as well as the nature of the new demand (mass migration on an unprecedented scale from the countryside and the provincial towns), contributed to the formation of a popular neighbourhood with humble houses for artisans, journeymen and all sorts of small tradesmen and manufacturers, mainly from the Peloponnese but also from the islands.[19]

Even so this mass invasion of housing did not stall the penetration of productive activities in the area of the silkmill (Metaxourgeion).[20] On the contrary, the cg=haracter of the new incomers facilitated this mixture. Always with Millerou street as the principal pole and carriage-making as the dominant activity, workplaces began infiltrating the neighbourhood. By 1900 most of the carriage-shops had moved from Adrianou street westwards to Asomaton, Leokoriou and Sarri streets, while four had crossed Piraeus street to be installed in Millerou street. At least two of these, the carriage-shop of Rossi brothers and that of Loranzo Mamos, were large workshops employing several people and constructing all kinds of carriages and vehicles: indeed a contemporary guide mentions the “silkmill” as the address of the first.[21]

Section of a French map of Athens in 1896 (Guide Joannes, Hachette et Cie); marked are the zone of wheelwrights’ workshops in Asomaton, Lefkoriou and Sarri streets, and the four wheelwrights’ workshops in Millerou street (1900).

In the same period metal workshops had also moved into the area. Two of the most important machine-shops in Athens, of the Konteka Bros (“Hephaistos”) and of “Vlachanis, Petropoulos & Co”, were located in Kolokynthous and Lenorman streets respectively. The second, at the corner of Konstantinoupoleos and Lenorman streets, where the Peloponesian railway track defined the new boundary of the city (fig. 7), developed into an important factory (BIO), which continued in existence until the 1960s. With these plants, and possibly other smaller ones not recorded in the guides of the period, the neighbourhood of Metaxourgeion had already formed by the turn of the 19th century the basic traits of its character, which its subsequent evolution was to reinforce: a popular-petit bourgeois neighbourhood with moxed uses (housing, trade and industry) diffused through its web.[22]

This physiognomy is recorded clearly thirty years later, on the 1930 map (fig. 8), which indicates, on the basis of a detailed guide of that year,[23] all the industrial uses (primary and ancillary) in the area delimited by Piraeus street, Iera Odos, Konstantinoupoleos, Lenorman, Achilleos and Deliyorgi streets. This area included some 1900 addresses (numbered entrances),[24] about 680 of which belong to all other uses except residential (trade, industry, leisure services); that is, roughly one in three houses in the area were (or included in the ground floor) workshops or shops.

The census and mapping of these uses shows the basic characteristics of the neighbourhood. Firstly, its popular character; in comparison to what happens in the entire city, there are, for example, very few clothing-footwear shops in Metaxourgeion, but a high percentage of tailors, shoemakers, and alterations-repairs workshops; there is just one restaurant, yet a host of cook-shops and coffee shops. Secondly, the large number of shops and the variety of uses (among them health services, education and leisure) point toa neighbourhood which within the fifty or so years since it began to be settled had acquired a fully urban character. Lastly, the different density of the various uses in individual parts of the neighbourhoods bears witness of the mechanisms of attraction-repulsion of like-opposite activities that create contexts and attribute identities to sectors of the urban web. For example, commercial and industrial uses are crowded in the central zone of the neighbourhood and on the peripheral axes, while in its inrterior and particularly its western part there are mainly residential pockets, from which however food shops are not missing, dispersed throughout the web on virtually every corner; northeast, on the outskirts of Omonoia (beyond Kolokynthous street), a greater concentration of services and professions is observed.

Manufacturing installations in the neighbourhood of Metaxourgeion in 1930.

However, the most important feature of the neighbourhood of Metaxourgeion, that which is of prime interest here, is the high concentration of industrial plants, and indeed of those which in a rudimentary classification could be designated “heavy”: metal workshops, timber yards, building materials and printers, 141 units in all (fig. 8). Indeed particularly striking is the density of these units in Millerou street which, 75 years after the founding of the silkmill, remained the paramount street of workshops and small factories, while in contrast neighbouring Thermopylon street amassed more “light” workshops (clothing, footwear, box-making etc.).
Even more revealing for the resilience of the historical parameters in forming the neighborhood’s physiognomy, is the ascertainment that it retains its specialization in servicing transport; but the carriage-shops. It is these workshops servicing the motor vehicle: car-body workshops, car upholstery and springs, engine shops, paint shops and parking lots, as well as spare-parts shops. It is these workshops that will slowly give way to the garages of the post-war-period, when all possibility of establishing a Greek automobile industry has been finally wiped out. The 1930 Guide records a transitional period in which, despite the invention of the ‘production line’ in the Ford factories, the production of the automobile still remained to large degree labour intensive, thus allowing the parceling out of parts production and mainly of assembly tasks, to smaller units. The small transport industry in Athens adapted to the developments and showed remarkable flexibility and durability to time.[25]

«Automobile Factory» (in 1997 a garage) at 54, Millerou street: living proof of a long and forgotten history.

Lateral shifts and absorptions, forces of attraction exercised by strong poles (large properties, atypical functions), readjustments of productive uses within the limits of wider families, are some of the formative mechanisms of the urban web in its historical course that the history of the neighborhood of Metaxourgeion enhances. The formation process was not so linear. The physiognomy of the neighborhood emerged from the synthesis of opposing trends that various times appeared to predominate temporarily (industrial zone – residential zone) and from the articulation of individual (conjunctural) actions and structural propensities of the development of the city. The large building of the siklmill played a leading role in this tug-of-war. First it opened the way for the expansion of the productive zone to the west of the city; later ‘it was beseiged’ by housing; but the influence it had already exerted on its environment withstood the test of the time more effectively than the building itself. The productive functions, with central axis Millerou street, infiltrated the newly settled area to form an inextricable mesh of housing-workplaces, an urban neighborhood with a distinctive identity.


1. This text was also published in the volume: Christina Agriantoni, Maria Christina Chatziioannou (ed.), Metaxourgeion: the Athens silkmill, INR/NHRF, Athens 1997.

2. See the plan of Athens and its environs under Ottoman rule, with the rural roads, in Κ. Μπίρης, Τα πρώτα σχέδια των Αθηνών [K. Biris, The first plans of Athens] Athens 1933, p. 5, and Ι. Τραυλός, Πολεοδομική εξέλιξις των Αθηνών [I. Travlos, Town-planning development of Athens] Athens 1993, pl. XI. See also Lya και Raymont Matton, Athenes et ses monuments du XVIIe s. a now jours, Athens 1963, from which figs 3, 4 και 5 in this are taken.

3. Today there is also an important road junction (crossroads of the Iera Odos and Piraeus Street) a little further eastwards.

4. Κ. Μπίρης, Οι γύφτοι. Μελέτη λαογραφική και εθνολογική [K. Biris, The Gypsies. Folklore and ethnological], Athens 1942, p. 5. The blacksmith’s shops occupied the entire extension of the Iera Odos into the city, from west to east, on what are now Tournavitou, Astingos and Ipfaistou streets.

5. Metaxourgeion, Vathi, Exarchia and Neapolis (then Proasteion = suburb) were the first unbuilt zones to be incorporated in Klenze’s city plan, which was approved on 18.9.1834, see I. Travlos, op.cit., p. 238. On the area’s name, see Chr. Zioulas Collection, contract 12882/17.8.1840 of the solicitor at Athens K. Kokidis.

6. Α. Μηλιαράκης, “Αι προ πεντηκονταετίας μεγάλοι των Αθηνών οικίαι” [A. Miliarakis, The grant houses of Athens of Athens fifty years ago], Εστία, iss. 470, 1.1.1885, p. 27 mention as ‘product’ of this phase the residences of: the Prince of Wallachia Ioannis Karatzas (inside the city walls, on Sarri street), G. Argyropoulos (afterwards of Koumoundouros), Misios (afterwards of I. Messinezis) further south, near the gasworks (Gazi), Botsaris(afterwards of Provelengios) at the corner of Kerameikou and Millerou streets, and of course Cantacuzenos, on the site of the silkmill. See also Ν. Καλλέργη-Μαυρογένη, “Αι πρώται επί Όθωνος οικίαι των Αθηνών” [N. Kallergi-Mavrogeni, The first houses in Athens during the reign of Otto], Τα Αθηναϊκά, iss. 31-32, Christmas 1965, p. 84-90, και Αγγελική Κόκκου, “Τα πρώτα αθηναϊκά σπίτια” [Angeliki Kokou, The first Athenian houses], Αρχαιολογία, iss. 2, February 1982, p. 57-58.

7. On the fate of the complex, see the detailed study by Aristea Papanicolaou-Christensen, “The Athens Silkmill: From shopping center to factory”, in Christina Agriantoni, Maria Christina Chatziioannou (ed.), Metaxourgeion : the Athens silkmill, INR/NHRF, Athens 1997.

8. The rising land prices corresponded to a demand from the affluent strata at that time, rather than the poor immigrants to Athens from the countryside, see also Θ. Δρίκος, Οι πωλήσεις των οθωμανικών ιδιοκτησιών της Αττικής 1830-1831, [Th. Drikos, The sales of the Ottoman properties in Attica 1830-1831], Athens 1994.

9. For example the Cantacuzenos residence was let as a house throughout this period, as is evidence from the mentioned study by Aristea Papanikolaou-Christensen; among those who lived there were Oto Gropius, Christian Siegel and the Luth family.

10. The Orphanage was founded with a bequest of Georgios Chatzikostas, from Ioannina, see Αθήναι (periodical essay published fortnightly) year I. iss. 2, 5 July 188, p. 40-43 and Σπ. Π. Φίλλη, “Αι Αθήναι του 1860” [Sp. P. Phillis, “Athens in 1860”] Τα Αθηναϊκά, iis. 34, Sept. 1966, p. 40-43 (a republication of Sp. Phillis ‘s letter from a pamphle he had published in 1866). Κ. Μπίρης, Αι Αθήναι από του 19ου εις τον 20όν αι [K. Biris, Athens from the 19th to the 20th century], Part I, Athens 1966, p. 204, erroneously states that the Orphanage was founded in 1890.

11.Μαρία Κορασίδου, “Οι φιλάνθρωποι μιλούν για τους φτωχούς…” [Maria Korasidou, The philanthropists speak about the poor…], Τα Ιστορικά, iss. 17, December 1992, p. 401.

12. In 1860 the Orphanagehoused 60 orphan boys aged 8-12 years, the number risisng to 100 in 1870 and 220 in 1883, see Σπ. Φίλλη, op. cit. and Επετηρίς της Ελλάδος δια το έτος 1884 [Sp. Phillis, Annual of Greece for the year 1884], Athens 1883, p. 139-140. The Orphanage is clearly visible on the 1875 map (fig. 6), in its finished form with an atrium.

13. See Θ. Ν. Φιλαδελφεύς, Ιστορία των Αθηνών επί Τουρκοκρατίας από του 1400 μέχρι του 1800 [N. Th. Philadelpeus, History of Athens during the Turkish Occupation from 400 to 1800], vol. 1., Athens 1902, p. 308-309, and Ι. Τραυλός, op.cit., p. 208-220 and particularly fig. 140, p. 211.

14. G. Sklavounos, “Transports et division sociale de l’espace urbain: Athènes du XIXe et Xxe siècle”, Villes en parallèle, n. 9, February 1986, p. 38, has also noted this dichotomy in ottoman Athens.

15. On the nature of the northern part of Athinas street in the 19th century, see characteristic pictures (unfortunately undated) in Θ. Παπαγεωργίου, Ενθύμιον Αθηνών [Th. Papageorgiou, Souvenir of Athens] Athens 1990 and Δ. Σκουζέ, “Ο δρόμος που άλλαζε μορφές”, Η Αθήνα που έφυγε, [D. Skouze, “The road that changed forms”, Athens that Has Gone] Athens 1961, p. 60-63.

16. Εθνοφύλαξ, 10.7.1862.

17. Εθνοφύλαξ, 10.4.1865. The Galiani carriage workshop is not mentioned in later sources, but it is quite possible that it continuedin operation under another name: in an avert for the carriage workshop of the Rossi brothers, set up very close to the silkmill in 1900, its founding date is cited as 1861, while it is not mentioned in later sources, thus it was very probably the successor to the Galiani carriage workshop. See also Société Biotechnique Hellénique, La Grèce commerciale et industrielle en 1900, Athènes 1900, p. XVIII of the appendix.

18. D. Doukakis’s bedstead workshop on Piraeus street, a short way down from the Conservatory, see Μ. Μπούκας, Οδηγός εμπορικός … των κυριωτέρων πόλεων… [M. Boukas, Commercial guide… of the main towns…], Athens 1875, p. 109-110, 112.

19. There are fleeting yet poignant images of the area in some literally texts: ‘down in the outmost reaches of the city, beyond the silkmill’ was the humble home of ‘Master-Demetris the Villager… whitewasher and painter by trade’, that he had built himself, in A. Papadiamantis’s short story “Φιλόστοργοι” (1895) (in Λίζυ Τσιριμώκου, Γραμματολογία της πόλης, λογοτεχνία της πόλης, πόλεις της λογοτεχνίας [Lizy Tsirimokou, Grammatology of the city, literature in the city, cities in literature], Λωτός publications, n.d. [1987], p. 86-87). The young Virginia stayed with her aunt ‘who had once lived in style, but having been left a widow was an ironer’, at Metaxourgeion, in the novel by Κων. Χρηστομάνος, Η κερένια κούκλα [K. Christomanos, The Wax Doll], Athens 1925 (excerpt from p. 11). Later testimonies on the character of Metaxourgeion in: Β Αγγελίδης, Μεταξουργείο – Κολωνός, Νοσταλγία και πραγματικότητα [V. Angelidis, Metaxourgeion – Kolomos. Nostalgia and reality], Athens 1992, particularly p. 37-47.

20. The separation of the home from the workplace is of course a recent phenomenon, belonging to the automobile age. The mingling of functions in historic cities, and not only in their poor neighborhoods, is well known and needs no further elaboration here. If there is something we should remember, it is the doctrinaire attitude with which the principle of separation of functions has been applied in the 20th century, leading to those residential zones not fit to live in, that exist in all big cities.

21. Even though the silkmill had for some time given its name (Metaxourgeion) to the area, the neighborhood and specifically the zone delimited in Piraeus, Voutiadon, Kon/poleos, Lenorman and Kolokynthous streets (that is include the Cazochori [gasworks] and part of the neighborhood of Akadimias Platonos [Plato’s Academy] it was named officially for the first time, in the RD of 7.6.1908, “Κεραμεικού έξω”. See. Μ. Μαρμαράς, Η αστική πολυκατοικία της μεσοπολεμικής Αθήνας [M. Marmaras, The urban apartment block in inter-war Athens] Cultural Foundation of ETBA, Athens 1991, p. 96 and map 1, p. 97.

22. See also the classification proposed by M. Marmaras, op.cit., p. 110.

23. Οδηγός της Ελλάδος του έτους 1930 [Guide to Greece for the year 1930] (founded by N. G. Inglesis in 1900), Πυρσός S.A., Athens.

24. The number is calculated on the basis of the numbering of the streets; it is obviously an approximation because possible subdivisions (e.g. 42a etc.) are not known. The units were placed on the map in fig. 6 on the basis of numbering the streets today, since comparison with the numbers recorded in the 1930. Guide showed that they have not changed drastically since; however minor local differences should not be ruled out, for which reason the site of the units on the map should not be considered infallible; the approximation was made by block.

25. It should be noted that two out of five car-body shops (‘Athina’ at the corner of Millerou and Germanikou streets, opposite the silkmill, and P. Alexiou) and two out of nine engine shops (S. Kordellakos on the Iera Odos and S. Sideris, again in Millerou street) in 1930, are included in 1954 among the most important factories of the respective sectors, see Ν. Σιδερής, Η ελληνική βιομηχανία: Βιομηχανική παραγωγή και αξία αυτής κατά τα έτη 1953 και 1954 [N. Sideris, Greek Industry. Industrial production and its value during the years 1953 and 1954], Athens 1955.