Opium Use in 19th-Century Britain: The Roots of Moralism in Shaping Drug Legislation

Prior to the 1868 Pharmacy Act, which restricted the sale of opium to pharmacists, opium was widely available, typically purchased at the grocer. By Dr. Stephanie NgYale School of Medicine The topic of addiction in psychiatry remains contentious, riddled with moral arguments that skew public sentiment and policy. Since the 1970s, when a “War on[…]

Monjas Coronadas: ‘Crowned Nuns’ of Colonial Spanish America

Why were such lavish portraits of nuns created on the occasion of their profession, and who were they for? Introduction One of the most famous types of female portraits in the colonial Spanish Americas are the monjas coronadas, or crowned nuns, so named for the elaborate floral crowns atop their heads. In these portraits, nuns are[…]

Defensive Saints and Angels in the Colonial Spanish Americas

The theme of protection of Christians and the Christian faith was common in the Spanish viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru. Guardian Angels Brandishing a fiery sword, standing in a balletic pose, and stretching almost top to bottom in a painting, an angel protects a young boy. His pink and green clothes flutter behind him[…]

A History of American Journalism in the 20th Century

In the quest for increased readership, newspaper editors began to publish sensational headlines and lurid stories. By Dr. Rick MusserProfessor Emeritus of JournalismUniversity of Kansas Introduction This article focuses on American journalism from 1900-1999. Although history does not often compartmentalize itself into convenient pieces, this focuses on the 10 decades as if each 10 years[…]

A History of Journalism since the 16th Century

In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte (“Written notices”), which cost one gazzetta. Introduction The history of journalism spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism surmises, the steady increase of[…]

Famous Grammarians and Poets of the Byzantine Empire

Making a grammar book was one of the principal tools of Byzantine scholars to preserve the correct form of Classical Greek. Introduction Overview In the wake of the downfall of the Western Roman Empire and the intellectual collapse of Athens, Byzantine scholars engaged in preserving the Classical Greek language and its literature. Thus they became the guardians of a vanished culture. This article[…]

Grammar: From the Ancient Greeks to the Middle Ages

English sentence structure or grammar has been extraordinarily impacted by the ancient Greek and Latin models. By Dr. R GnanasekaranAssistant Professor, Department of EnglishKarpagam University Abstract In view of the fact that grammar is a central phase of instructing a language, many techniques have been adopted to instruct it effectively over the time. Right from[…]

“Shall the Fundamentalists Win?”: Harry Emerson Fosdick Defending Liberal Protestantism in 1922

He saw the history of Christianity as one of development, progress, and gradual change as a modernist in the Fundamentalist-Modernist controversy. Introduction Harry Emerson Fosdick (May 24, 1878 – October 5, 1969) was an American pastor. Fosdick became a central figure in the Fundamentalist–Modernist controversy within American Protestantism in the 1920s and 1930s and was one of the[…]

A History of Liberal Christianity since the 19th Century and Its Impact in the United States

In the context of theology, the word liberal does not refer to political liberalism, and it should be distinguished from progressive Christianity. Introduction Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, is a movement that interprets and reforms Christian teaching by taking into consideration modern knowledge, science and ethics. It emphasizes the importance of reason and experience over doctrinal[…]

Ancient and Medieval Dance, It’s Death during the Christian Reformation, and It’s Revival

Despite opposition from the early church, dance was an integral part of Christian devotion for many centuries before falling out of favor. By Dr. Kathryn DickasonVisiting Scholar, School of ReligionDornsife College of Letters, Arts and SciencesUniversity of Southern California Introduction In the PBS documentary series “The Black Church: This Is Our Story, This Is Our[…]

The Art and Architecture of Amiens Cathedral

Amiens Cathedral provides a window into the practice and culture of religious belief of the Middle Ages. By Emogene CataldoPhD Candidate in Art HistoryColumbia University Visiting Amiens Cathedral With its two soaring towers and three large portals filled with sculpture, Amiens Cathedral crowns the northern French city of Amiens. The cathedral is still one of the tallest[…]

Peace to Be Picked Up: The Secret Diplomacy Failure of 1916 that Changed the World

From August 1916 until the end of January 1917, leaders from Germany, Britain, and the United States secretly struggled to end the Great War. By Dr. Philip ZelikowWhite Burkett Miller Professor of HistoryJ. Wilson Newman Professor of GovernanceMiller Center of Public AffairsUniversity of Virginia On August 12, 1916, France’s president, Raymond Poincaré, walked up to[…]

The Reel Story of the Great War: Videography during World War I

Soldiers were assigned to capture the action and sacrifice on camera for purposes of both patriotism and propaganda. The War According to CBS-TV By far the largest grouping of World War I film titles is located in the CBS collection. It contains footage collected from numerous sources by CBS TV for its landmark 1964–1965 documentary[…]

Anna Atkins and the Cyanotype Process in Botanical Illustration in the 19th Century

Although today Atkins’s prints are sold and viewed as art, they were originally made as botanical illustrations. By Elliot KrasnopolerPhD Candidate in Art HistoryBryn Mawr College Who Was Anna Atkins? We are looking at a white-ish blue, organically-shaped form radiating from a central point, and surrounded by a rich, flat cyan-blue tone. Little here gives[…]

From the Society Pages to the Museum in the 18th Century

How Gilda Darthy’s bed tells a story about writing women back into history. By Amanda BermanCuratorial Assistant, Department of Sculpture and Decorative ArtsGetty Museum With its grand size and luxurious upholstery, this bed makes a statement. However, it is also special because we know so much about it. It’s unusual for an 18th-century piece of[…]

An Historical Overview of Senate Filibusters and Cloture

With few examples of the practice before the 1830s, the strategy of “talking a bill to death” was common enough by mid-century to gain a colorful label—the filibuster. Introduction The Senate tradition of unlimited debate has allowed for the use of the filibuster, a loosely defined term for action designed to prolong debate and delay[…]

A History of the Filibuster in the United States Senate

Although not explicitly mandated, the Constitution and its framers clearly envisioned that simple majority voting would be used to conduct business. Introduction A filibuster is a parliamentary procedure used in the United States Senate to prevent a measure from being brought to a count. The most common form of filibuster occurs when one or more senators attempt to delay or block a vote[…]

Paying Reparations to Slave Owners and Their Heirs in the 19th Century

History is full of examples of nations paying out to compensate for slavery. But the money never went to those who actually suffered. Extorting Haiti A prominent example is the so-called “Haitian Independence Debt” that saddled revolutionary Haiti with reparation payments to former slave owners in France. Haiti declared independence from France in 1804, but[…]

White Mob Riots in Washington in 1848 to Defend Slaveholders’ Rights

Riots by proslavery forces raged for three days in the nation’s capital after the capture of a ship bearing fugitive enslaved people. By Dr. Michael David CohenResearch Professor of GovernmentAmerican University Introduction Long before the demonstrations over Black Lives Matter, long before the marches of the civil rights era, strife over racism convulsed the nation’s[…]

4 Great Sources Students Can Use For Writing An Academic Paper On Ancient Rome

By Amanda Dudley The Roman Empire spanned several centuries and has had a major influence on the world at large. As such, there is a huge chance that you may find yourself in a situation where you are required to write a paper on Ancient Rome society. But where exactly do you get your sources[…]

No Pensions for Ex-Slaves: How Federal Agencies Suppressed Movement to Aid Freedpeople

The movement to grant pensions to ex-slaves faced strong opposition from three executive branch agencies. By Miranda Booker Perry Introduction The Union victory in the Civil War helped pave the way for the 13th amendment to formally abolish the practice of slavery in the United States. But following their emancipation, most former slaves had no[…]

A History of the Washington Monument

The geometric layout of Washington, D.C.’s streets and green spaces reserved a prominent space for a monument to George Washington. Introduction “First in War, First in Peace, and First in the hearts of his countrymen.” George Washington’s military and political leadership were indispensable to the founding of the United States. As commander of the Continental[…]

A History of Washington, D.C. from Its Early Settlement

Archaeological evidence indicates American Indians settled in the area at least 4,000 years ago, around the Anacostia River. Introduction The history of Washington, D.C., is tied to its role as the capital of the United States. Originally inhabited by an Algonquian-speaking people known as the Nacotchtank, the site of the District of Columbia along the Potomac River was first selected by President George Washington.[…]

The Price of Public Resistance to Safety during the 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic

At the first hint the virus was receding, people pushed to get life back to normal. Unfortunately another surge of the disease followed. Introduction Picture the United States struggling to deal with a deadly pandemic. State and local officials enact a slate of social-distancing measures, gathering bans, closure orders and mask mandates in an effort[…]

Band of Angels: Sister Nurses in the Spanish-American War

The need for trained nurses was heightened — and the work of the sister nurses in the Civil War was not forgotten. By Dr. Mercedes GrafFormer Professor of PsychologyIllinois School of Professional PsychologyGovernors State University Introduction Although thousands of patriotic women rushed off to care for the sick and wounded during America’s bloody Civil War[…]

Alonso de Ovalle’s Early Modern ‘Tabula geographica regni Chile’

In 1646, a Chilean man named Alonso de Ovalle published an illustrated text titled Historical account of the Kingdom of Chile. By Dr. Catherine E. BurdickProfessor of Arts and HumanitiesUniversidad Mayor de Chile Introduction What images might enhance a map of a distant land in a remote corner of the world? Might lava-spewing volcanoes, a strutting[…]

The Ancient Peruvian Moche Royal Tombs of Sipán

The tombs were found almost completely undisturbed. A Golden Discovery In 1987, Peruvian archaeologist Walter Alva received a tip from the police that local villagers had discovered gold in one of the huacas (a term for ancient sacred sites used widely in Peru) and were looting artifacts at the site of Huaca Rajada in the town of Sipán, near[…]