Goddesses in Celtic Religion: The Matres and Matronae

Terracotta relief of the Matres (the Vertault relief), three Celtic goddesses, from the Gallo-Roman settlement of Vertillum (Vertault) in Gaul (region of Burgundy, East France). / Museum of Celtic Civilization, Bibracte, France By Dr. Noémie Beck / 12.04.2009 Professor of Irish Studies Concordia University Introduction The Mother Goddess is an entity, whose cult is universal[…]

Urban Growth in Europe in the Nineteenth Century

Aerial view of London, 1850. View of London looking north-east, from Westminster and showing the course of the River Thames; in the foreground are Westminster Abbey, with the Houses of Parliament on the right, which show the completed Clock and Victoria Towers and St James’s Park to the left. / Getty Images Lecture by Dr.[…]

How Ordinary People are Changing the World

By Christina Sarich / 02.11.2017 India Plants 50 Million Trees in a Single Day Over 800,000 volunteers planted saplings across the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh recently. The tree-planting initiative was part of a $6.5 billion-dollar effort to reforest at least 12 percent of India by 2030. It wasn’t a publicity stunt, nor was it[…]

The New Ruins of Syria

The Bel Temple, Aleppo, 2004. Courtesy of and © Ross Burns. All rights reserved An archaeologist explains why cultural heritage monuments in Palmyra and Aleppo have been used as weapons of war. By Dr. Ross Burns / 02.08.2017 Adjunct Professor of Archaeology Macquarie University Syria is a singular treasure trove of numerous phases of world[…]

Benedict Arnold: Hero to Villain

Benedict Arnold is a case study of the ways in which ideas about regionalism, social rank, and gender–and the realities of the Continental Congress and the Continental Army–played out in the Revolutionary period. Like many Americans during this time, Benedict Arnold thought that he could improve his social rank and reputation in the military, but[…]

History of the Soviet Union, 1968-1973: The Chinese Border to Tol’iatti

Tol’iatti, Russia / Wikimedia Commons By Dr. Lewis Siegelbaum / 09.24.2015 Professor of Russian and European History Michigan State University Aeroflot and Pan Am When Flying was First Class (1968) / Life Magazine, 07.26.1968 Finalized after many years of top-level negotiations, the launch of a direct New York-Moscow air route in 1968 signaled an early[…]