The Growth of Literacy in Western Europe from 1500 to 1800

Class portrait, unknown school, somewhere in England (1860s) / Scanned by pellethepoet, Flickr, Creative Commons By Dr. Robert A. Houston / 11.28.2011 Professor of Modern History University of St. Andrews Abstract Between ca. 1500 and ca. 1800 most Western European societies moved decisively from restricted to mass literacy. This article outlines the spectrum of skills[…]

A Beginner’s Guide to the Renaissance Book

Woodcut in Divina proportione, 1509, Luca Pacioli. The Getty Research Institute, 84-B9582. See full digitized book A look at the art and science of Europe’s early printed books, with examples from the Getty Research Institute’s special collections. By Sarah Sherman / 09.23.2015 Reference Librarian Getty Research Institute In the 15th century, a new form of mass communication dramatically[…]

The European Book Market from Antiquity to Today

By Dr. Ernst Fischer / 12.03.2010 Department of Book Science Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz Abstract The medium of the book, as a portable store of knowledge, has always made a central contribution to the rise of cultural areas. Dependent by its nature on language, the book market rendered pan-European communication possible over the centuries during which[…]

The Dutch Republic as the Center of the European Book Trade in the 17th Century

By Dr. Paul Hoftijzer / 11.23.2015 Senior University Lecturer in Medieval and Early Modern Studies Universiteit Leiden Abstract In the seventeenth century, the Dutch Republic witnessed its Golden Age. The reasons for this phenomenon are diverse, but it impacted all branches of Dutch society, including the production, distribution and consumption of printed media. The book[…]

Ancient America before 1492

Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 02.14.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief 1 – Early Inhabitants of the Americas 1.1 – Migration to North America Civilization in America began during the last Ice Age when nomadic Paleo-Indians migrated across Beringia. America was inhabited by humans long before the first European set foot on the continent. The beginning[…]

A History of ‘Kemet’ – Ancient Egypt

Image via Wikimedia Commons Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 02.16.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief 1 – Introduction to Ancient Egypt 1.1 – The Rise of Egyptian Civilization In prehistoric times (pre-3200 BCE), many different cultures lived in Egypt along the Nile River, and became progressively more sedentary and reliant on agriculture. By the time of[…]