French Immigrants to Constantinople and Greece in the 13th Century

Settlers brought relatives from the west, formed marriage alliances for themselves and their children in the east, and reoriented their lives. By Erica Jo Giles / 09.08.2006 After capturing Constantinople in 1204, the Fourth Crusaders[1] established several states in former Byzantine territory. Starting from the captured imperial center, westerners moved into Thrace, Greece, the Aegean[…]

Psychology and Mental Illness in the Middle Ages

Walters Art Museum, Creative Commons There is a common perception assumes that demonic possession, witchcraft, and superstition defined mental illness, and religion dominated study of the mind. However, the reality is much more subtle. By Martyn Shuttleworth Historian of Science Beyond Aristotle From the perspective of modern psychology and psychiatry, it is too easy to[…]

Solon the Lawgiver: A Constitution of Property

The Aristotelian Constitution of the Athenians / British Library (Oxyrhynchus Papyrus 131), Wikimedia Commons Solon’s new constitution was based on ownership of property. Introduction By the early 6th century B.C. social tensions in Athens had become acute, pitting the poorer citizens against rich and powerful landowners. Many citizens were reduced to the status of share[…]

Justice in Pharaonic Egypt

Detail of sarcophagus lid of Ramesses III / The Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge Justice  was an immensely important concept within ancient pharaonic Egypt, known to them by the word Ma’at. By A.J. van Loon / 12.15.2014 MA Thesis, Ancient History Leiden University Introduction Concerning Egypt, I am going to speak at length, because it[…]