Political Culture and Socialization in America

1952 Democratic Convention / Wikimedia Commons People gain an understanding and acceptance of the political culture of their nation through a process called political socialization. Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 09.25.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief Introduction Americans have strong positive feelings about the country’s flag. Government leaders and candidates giving speeches often are flanked by[…]

A Brief History of American Political Culture

Green Dragon Tavern, Union Street. Engraver: Russell. 1898 (approximate). Copy photograph from engraving by Russell of the tavern in the North End where the Sons of Liberty planned the Boston Tea Party. / Boston Public Library, Wikimedia Commons Every country has a political culture — widely shared beliefs, values, and norms that define the relationship[…]

Spices and Ceramics Found Aboard 400-Year-Old Portuguese Shipwreck

Divers are seen during the discovery of a centuries-old shipwreck, in Cascais in a photo released Monday. / Augusto Salgado/Cascais City Hall/Handout via Reuters A 400-year-old shipwreck that signified a time when the spice trade between Portugal and India was booming has been uncovered 40 feet below the water’s surface during a dredging project. By[…]

The Role of Guilds in the Middle Ages

A medieval baker with his apprentice (scanned from The Medieval Cookbook by Maggie Black). As both business and social organizations, guilds were prolific throughout Europe  between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries.   By Dr. William Bosshardt and Dr. Jane S. Lopus Bosshardt: Professor of Economics, Florida Atlantic University Lopus: Professor Emerita of Economics, California State[…]

Consultation with Apollo’s Pythia at Ancient Delphi

The Sacred Way at Delphi with the remains of the Athenians’ Treasury The Delphic Oracle belonged to Apollo, and his priestess, called The Pythia, gave her oracles from inside Apollo’s temple. By Dr. Susan O. Shapiro (above) and Jessica Mellenthin Shapiro: Professor of History Utah State University Introduction The word, “oracle,” comes from the Latin[…]

Strong Women Did a Lot of Heavy Lifting in Ancient Farming Societies

Early agrarian women—like these murdered in what is now western France some 6500 years ago—may have been critical manual laborers in their societies. Didier Descouens/Wikimedia Commons Prehistoric women shouldered a major share of the hoeing, digging, and hauling in early agricultural societies. By Michael Price / 11.29.2017 Forget about emotional labor. Women living 7000 years ago[…]