The 1787 Constitutional Convention: Conflicts and Ratification

Although the original purpose of the convention was to amend the Articles of Confederation, some—though not all—delegates moved quickly to create a new framework for a more powerful national government. By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, Professor of History Ventura College Introduction The economic problems that plagued the thirteen states of the Confederation set the[…]

Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic

Radical pamphleteer Thomas Paine advocated a republic: a state without a king. By Dr. P. Scott Corbett, Professor of History Ventura College Introduction While monarchies dominated eighteenth-century Europe, American revolutionaries were determined to find an alternative to this method of government. Radical pamphleteer Thomas Paine, whose enormously popular essay Common Sense was first published[…]

The Age of Enlightenment: An Intellectual Movement of Reason

The Scholar with His Student, Anonymous Flemish painter (circle of Gerard Thomas and Balthasar van den Bossche) / Wikimedia Commons The Enlightenment advocated reason as a means to establishing an authoritative system of aesthetics, ethics, government, and even religion, which would allow human beings to obtain objective truth about the whole of reality. Edited by[…]

The Rise of Universities in the Middle Ages and the Discovery of Aristotle

The big, new ideas of high medieval academia were Aristotle’s. By Dr. Hans Peter Broedel Graduate Director, Associate Professor of History University of North Dakota The Church reform of the high middle ages was a movement of the highest significance to European culture and society.  From its beginnings as an effort to free monasteries from[…]