Rethinking the Long Nineteenth Century, 1750-1950

We’re still far from being able to devise a truly world-centered historical framework for the nineteenth century. By Dr. Edmund Burke IIIProfessor Emeritus of HistoryUniversity of California Santa Cruz Abstract These days for a variety of reasons we are suspicious of large scale historical narratives and the uses to which they have been put. But[…]

Globalization’s Sixteenth-Century Origins

Globalization began when all heavily-populated land masses began interacting in a sustained manner with deep consequences for all interacting regions. By Dr. Dennis O. Flynn and Dr. Arturo GiráldezFlynn: Alexander R. Heron Distinguished Professor of EconomicsGiráldez: Professor of SpanishUniversity of the Pacific Abstract Globalization began when all heavily-populated land masses began interacting – both directly[…]

China’s Early Modern Commodities Trade

The search for a commodity that the Chinese wanted to buy led the British to develop opium plantations in Bengal. Luxury exports from Canton—fine porcelain, furniture, lacquer, paintings, and figurines—attracted the most attention as art objects but were not the primary goods of trade. The original China trade was a simple bulk exchange of commodities.[…]

China’s Trade with the West in the Early Modern World

From early times China engaged in extensive trade relations with other countries, From early times China engaged in extensive trade relations with other countries until the mid-19th century. Introduction From early times China engaged in extensive trade relations with other countries, and until the mid 19th century Chinese officials directed by the imperial court in[…]

Ptolemy I Soter: Greek Founder of Egypt’s Ptolemaic Dynasty

The synthesis of Greek and Egyptian customs, beliefs and practices created by Ptolemy I and his heirs remains a subject for study and research. Introduction Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr, i.e., Ptolemy the Savior, (ca. 367 B.C.E. — ca. 283 B.C.E.) was a Macedoniaian general under Alexander the Great who became ruler of Egypt (323 B.C.E. — 283 B.C.E.) and founder of Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the Roman conquest in 30 C.E. In[…]

Dividing the Spoils: The Babylon Conferences for the Empire of Alexander the Great

Immediately after the death of Alexander the Great, the power play began. By Robin WaterfieldBritish Classics Scholar and Author Introduction Immediately after Alexander’s death, while the embalmers got busy with his body, those of his senior officers who were present in Babylon met and began to make arrangements for the future. The power play began.[…]