A ‘Measure of Retaliation’: The Burning of Washington in 1814

President James Madison, military officials, and his government evacuated and were able to find refuge for the night. Introduction The Burning of Washington was a British invasion of Washington City (now Washington, D.C.), the capital of the United States, during the Chesapeake Campaign of the War of 1812. To this date, it remains the only[…]

The History of the United States Capitol Building since 1793

In 1791, President George Washington selected the area that is now the District of Columbia from land ceded by Maryland. Introduction The history of the United States Capitol Building begins in 1793. Since then, the U.S. Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored. The Capitol that we see today is the result of[…]

Ancient Egyptian Coptic Textiles

The dry conditions of Egypt helped preserve these delicate fabrics. What Is Coptic? The modern term “Copt” derives from a corruption of the ancient Greek aigyptos via Arabic qibt, meaning “Egyptian.” This is a reference to native Egyptians as opposed to Greek and Roman settlers. The Coptic period (or Byzantine period) began with the division[…]

Ancient Egyptian Metallurgy

The main metals used in ancient Egypt were copper, gold, silver, and iron. Metallurgy is the science of separating metals from their ores, and it developed quite recently, considering the length of human history. Ancient Egyptians were neither the inventors of metallurgy, nor the most innovative in its development.[1] Yet metals, especially gold, had a[…]