What Is Modern Architecture, Anyway?

Five things to look for, and how these design features changed the world. The development of Modern architecture revolutionized our cities and workplaces, and its design principles not only reflected progress in science, health, and social equality but were also intended to help these ideals thrive. Today, Modern design principles help connect society and are[…]

Benvenuto Cellini’s Salt Cellar Renaissance Sculpture

This was an intellectual conversation starter—filled with meanings waiting to be decoded by an elite, art-literate audience. Introduction When a thief broke into the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna in 2003, one object in particular caught his attention. The gallery lights glinted off an intricately worked gold and enamel surface—this was the famous salt cellar by[…]

A History of the University of Cambridge since the 13th Century

In 1209, scholars taking refuge from hostile townsmen in Oxford migrated to Cambridge and settled there. Early Records When we first come across Cambridge in written records, it was already a considerable town. The bridge across the River Cam or Granta, from which the town took its name, had existed since at least 875. The[…]

Alma Mater Studiorum: A History of the University of Bologna since 1088

The University of Bologna saw the first woman to earn a university degree and teach at a university. Introduction The University of Bologna is a research university in Bologna, Italy. Founded in 1088 by an organised guild of students (hence studiorum), it is the oldest university in continuous operation in the world, and the first university in the sense of a[…]