The Origins and Dialects of Old English

First lines of Beowulf from the damaged Nowell Codex Old English arose from the set of varieties of West Germanic which the early settlers spoke. By Dr. Raymond Hickey Professor for General Linguistics and Varieties of English Universität Duisburg-Essen Origins The Germanic settlers, who according to the Venerable Bede arrived in England in 449, brought[…]

Giving and Taking in Indo-European Society

By Dr. Émile Benveniste (1902-1976) Former Professor of Linguistics Collège de France Gift and Exchange Abstract Greek has five words that are commonly translated uniformly by “gift.” A careful examination of their use shows that they do in fact correspond to as many different ways of envisaging a gift—from the purely verbal notion of “giving” to “a contractual[…]

Early Civilizations of the Indian Subcontinent

The Great Stupa of Sanchi / Creative Commons Edited by Matthew A. McIntosh / 03.07.2018 Historian Brewminate Editor-in-Chief 1 – The Indus River Valley Civilizations 1.1 – Introduction 1.1.1 – Overview Map of the Indus Valley Civilization: The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. The Indus Valley Civilization existed through its early years of 3300-1300[…]