A History of the Soviet Union-Afghan War, 1979-1989

The war over-extended the capabilities of the Soviet empire, as other military engagements have helped to bring various empires down throughout history. Introduction The Soviet War in Afghanistan was a nine-year period involving the Soviet forces and the Mujahideen insurgents that were fighting to overthrow Afghanistan’s Marxist People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government. The[…]

A History of the Kushan Empire

The Kushan Empire reached its cultural zenith circa 105 – 250 C.E. and extended from Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan, and into the Ganges River valley in northern India. Introduction The Kushan Empire (c. First–Third Centuries) reached its cultural zenith circa 105 – 250 C.E., extended from Tajikistan to Afghanistan, Pakistan and into the Ganges River valley in northern India. The Kushan tribe of the Yuezhi confederation,[…]

Ai Khanoum, the Capital of Eucratides in Ancient Afghanistan

Founded during the conquests of Alexander the Great, the city developed and grew after his death. Ai Khanum (also spelled Ai-Khanoum or Ay-Khanum, lit. “Lady Moon” in Uzbek), was founded in the 4th century BC, following the conquests of Alexander the Great and was one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. The site is located in the[…]

The Expansion of the Ancient Graeco-Bactrian Kingdom (Modern Afghanistan)

The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into present-day eastern Afghanistan and Pakistan from 180 BC established the Indo-Greek Kingdom. The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC. It was centered on the north of present-day Afghanistan. The expansion of the Greco-Bactrians into present-day eastern Afghanistan[…]

Beyond Bactria: A History of Ancient Afghanistan

Archaeologists and historians suggest that humans were living in Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, and that farming communities of the region were among the earliest in the world. Introduction Archaeological exploration of the pre-Islamic period of Afghanistanbegan in Afghanistan in earnest after World War II and proceeded until the late 1970s when the nation was invaded by the Soviet Union. Archaeologists[…]