The Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, and Robber Barons

The term “robber baron” described powerful 19th-century industrialists who used questionable practices to amass their wealth. Introduction The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the “Technological Revolution,” was a phase of rapid industrialization in the final third of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in[…]

Child Labor and the Industrial Revolution

Industrialization led to a dramatic increase in child labor. Introduction This explores the dangerous, exhausting work undertaken by children in factories and mines, and the literary responses of writers including Charles Dickens and Elizabeth Barrett Browning. Child labour was not an invention of the Industrial Revolution. Poor children have always started work as soon as[…]

Industrial Development during the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment’s chronology, spatiality, and content in the context of the Industrial Revolution. Introduction In 1997 Robert Darnton published a short article, entitled The Enlightenment: A Personal View, in which he was very critical of many recent studies of the topic. He set off by stating that ‘We live in an age of inflation’, a[…]

A History of the Industrial Revolution

The effects spread throughout Western Europe and North America during the nineteenth century. Introduction The Industrial Revolution was a major shift of technological, socioeconomic, and cultural conditions that occurred in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century in some Western countries. It began in Britain and spread throughout the world, a process that continues as[…]

Pollution During the Industrial Revolution

America and Europe introduced advanced manufacturing processes during the Industrial Revolution period. Most of the technological innovations originated in Britain. They included machine tools, chemical manufacturing processes and mechanized factory systems. The textile industry created many employment opportunities. But, many people don’t know the adverse effects the revolution had on the environment. In this post,[…]

Important Inventions of the Industrial Revolution

The inventions themselves were not an immediately profitable investment throughout many parts of Europe during the 18th century. Introduction The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change and development throughout parts of Europe in which society made substantial technological progress. A large amount of this progress was centered in Britain, not only because of[…]

The Standard of Living in Europe during the Industrial Revolution

During the Industrial Revolution, living conditions for new industrial workers were much different than they had been before. Introduction In Britain during the Industrial Revolution, large changes were beginning to take place regarding the standard of living for the people living at this time. No matter which class a person was in, from poorer working class[…]

Women’s Roles in the Industrial Revolution

Throughout the Industrial Revolution, gender was a major influence on worker salary. Experience of Women at the Outset of Industrialization The Industrial Revolution impacted different social classes of women in numerous ways.  Throughout this time period, the working class citizens were most significantly impacted.  Many women who did not belong to wealthy families would often[…]

Children and the Industrial Revolution

Working children were subject to very long work hours under harsh and dangerous conditions. Introduction The children of the Industrial Revolution at once hold all the opportunity of the future in their hands while also facing the terrors of poverty and reality of the present in the other. Perhaps when you imagine these children you[…]

Labor Laws and the Industrial Revolution

The working environment was harsh and laborers had to work long hours for extremely low wages. Introduction In the middle of 18th century Britain, the Industrial Revolution was well underway.  These changes brought about many differences in Britain’s economic system and greatly affected the lives of those working in it.  For workers, this meant living[…]

The Industrial Revolution: Transformation of Cities and the Urban Experience

Europeans faced issues such as pollution, health, disease, poverty, and crime. Introduction The Industrial Revolution started in Britain in the late 18th century. Through raw materials, the improvement of machinery and transportation, which created many more factories, lead to the start of the Industrial Revolution. While we consider it a great achievement in history, many[…]